Pen-and-ink drawing

Е.В.Малых. Обнаженная фигура. Факультет живописи. V курс. Бумага, перо, тушь. 38х45 см. Руководитель А.Л.Королев. 1986

Evgeny Malykh. The sketch of the nude male model. Pen-and-ink drawing. 38×45 cm. The Fifth Year of study.This work was created under the guidance of Professor A.L. Korolev. St.Petersburg, 1986

The first time I knew about pen-and-ink drawing was the period of my studies at the Art College in Ekaterinburg. Listening to the lectures on the History of Art and looking at the photos from the artworks of the nationally recognized and world famous artists and turning the glossy pages of art albums, I admired of these masterpieces They gave me the incentive to try this technique myself. Apparently, it is very easy to find the tools for this activity: a sheet of paper and pen with ink, have always been at hand. However, passing from words to deeds wasn’t as easy as it might look. Drawing with pen and ink requires from the artist to be very focused on their task. Nevertheless, your drawing should look like the artistic improvisation. Eventually, some of my attempts had proved to be successful, and this small achievement inspired me.

At that time I knew that not only steel pens were used in drawings: pen and ink drawing has a very interesting history. As far back as in the Ancient Egypt people worked with pens and brushes when drawing on the papyrus rolls. A copper pen dated back to 79 A.D. was found during the archaeological excavations in Pompeii.

My next experience in the pen-and-ink drawing I gained when I studied at the St. Petersburg Art Academy in the studio of People’s Artists of the USSR Andrei Mylnikov. Then, we, as the four-year students of the Academy of Arts worked on the drawings of the nude male models under the guidance of Professor Alexander Korolev. That task was a part of our curriculum. I must say that we had visited the Academic Library with the purpose of studying the best drawings of the classical artists before we started doing this task. Our library has a great collection of the facsimile reproductions of the ancient drawings. Alexander Leonidovich Korolev himself was a great admirer of the Renaissance artists, who worked in this genre, especially Michelangelo. He had always tried to pass on this the highest culture of drawing to his students. He also was of the opinion that pen as a tool plays an important part in eye training. As he said, this technique disciplines the eyesight. The line should be very precise because it is impossible to erase it afterward.

At the same time, another method of teaching this technique is often done. Those students whose hands are not trained enough are supposed to use a preliminary pencil drawing. Then, these lines should be outlined in ink. In the modern pen-and-ink drawings, a wide variety of pens are used: from the traditional pens, which are inserted into a handle to the more updated pens with the filling system, felt markers, ball pens, and roller ball pens. However, I have to say that when we use these facilities, we lose the sense of improvisation and the creative attitude to such artworks. Admittedly, many artists while drawing with pen and ink, searched for the right proportions of the objects depicted. We often can see auxiliary lines in their drawings. Those thin lines, which are drawn very close to the contours of the objects, illustrate the search of right proportions made by artists. We can see those so called misses in many designs of Michelangelo, which, so naturally form the entire ornament of the whole work. It’s known that Michelangelo often used the pen when he drew the Ancient Greek or Roman sculptures. Looking at these masterpieces, we consider these strokes not only as the part of the drawings, but like the attempts of a sculptor, who uses the pen like his chisel to cut out the shapes in the surrounding space.

The curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture includes the task on pen-and-ink human figure drawing. It is held for the four-year students every second semester. Most students are eager to do this task, which is for them the work on attention and concentration. For more successful students, teachers give advice not to make a preliminary drawing, but go ahead, beginning and ending this task with the pen only. Apart from the vast knowledge in construction and architectural design, a future architect needs artistic skills to add aesthetic features to their architectural sketches and designs. Undoubtedly, the handling of pen-and-ink drawing helps the artists to elaborate the precise and exquisite line, which enriches their architectural designs. During their studies, the students do different tasks, learning how to use different techniques and art materials.

It goes without saying, every objective requires its methods of expression. The summer practical training sessions give the students of the future architects an excellent opportunity to polish their skills after the third year of studying. Our mentors help students to choose the right materials according to the task objectives. For example, pen-and-ink drawing is better for the depicting the texture of a tree trunk, ornaments of cast-iron grills, and cracks in stone masonry. The combination of different materials in the graphic art gives the new opportunities for implementation of new ideas. For instance, brush, China ink, sepia, and watercolour are widely used when depicting dark places. In this case, the shadows become more intense. On the contrary, when shadows are hatched without the underlying tone, they look lighter and more transparent.

I have always admired the Renaissance architectural designs. Being made by using various techniques, they draw viewers’ attention neither their sizes nor the vast scale of their ideas, but liveliness, vibrant tones, and elegance. All these features require great mastery; thanks to that the seemingly ordinary architectural sketch turns into a great work of art.

Nowadays, we are hesitant over choice, being able to purchase any art materials; rarely artists use such an outdated tool as a goose quill. To some degree, a steel-pen is also considered as the thing of the past. Admittedly, these instruments almost replaced by more up-to-date tools, such as a fountain pen, ball pen, ball pen and felt-tip pen. Needless to say, despite its disadvantages, the traditional pen, not convenient, though, is very suitable for drawing by making thick and thin lines. Contrary to the drawings made with a ball or roller pen, which look like the well-done exercises, these pieces of art are fascinating and full of life.

More and more skilful pen-and-ink drawings can be spotted year at the midterm and final exhibitions of the students’ artworks. In the opinion of many students who do the outdoor and indoor tasks, there are many places and moments, where such or such a technique of pen-and-ink drawing is suitable for each work. In the end, I would like our students to be enthusiastic about their work and studying at the Institute, and wish them more discoveries and more compelling creative artworks.

 

Ээро Ярнефельт и Санкт-Петербургская Императорская Академия художеств


К вопросу о российско-финских художественных связях
II половины XIX века

Русско-финские культурные и художественные связи имеют длительную и интересную историю, которая берет свое начало еще в древние времена. Финны жили на берегах Невы еще до основания нашего города. Более тесные и целенаправленные контакты стали происходить с 1809 года, т.е. времени присоединения к России Финляндии. Для многих Петербург стал второй малой родиной. В 80-е годы XIX века их проживало в российской столице уже более 24 тысяч человек. Санкт-Петербург был вторым по численности, проживающих в нем финнов, городом после Хельсинки. Финны были представлены едва ли не во всех сословиях петербуржцев — от заводских рабочих и слуг в аристократических семьях до министров и фрейлин императрицы. Осип Мандельштам писал в «Шуме времени»: «Я всегда смутно чувствовал особенное значение Финляндии для петербуржца и, что сюда ездили додумать то, чего нельзя было додумать в Петербурге». 1Он считал, что Финляндия для петербуржцев имеет какой-то особый смысл.
Императорская Академия художеств также не была в стороне от финско-русских культурных связей, ставших ко второй половине XIX века объективной исторической реальностью. Финляндия – страна с веками сложившимися культурными традициями, тщательно и бережно сохраняемыми ее народом. Уже с 1708 года рисование начало преподаваться в Финляндии в университете в Гельсингфорсе.
Официально рисованию стали обучать в Финляндии с 1708 года. За годы пребывания Финляндии в составе России возникали и развивали свою деятельность художественные учебные заведения. Рисование было в программе Гельсингфорского университета, ему обучались при Финском художественном обществе (с1848 года), где образовалась художественная школа, которая стала работать в Гельсингфорсе, а затем и в Або. Из этих учебных заведений вышло много талантливых художников, чье творчество оказало большое влияние на искусство Финляндии. Но у Финского общества художников средств на организацию преподавания на уровне Академии художеств не хватало, и поэтому многие художники совершенствовали свое мастерство за границей.
С. Петербургская Императорская Академия художеств не была единственным учебным заведением, где художники повышали свой уровень. Выходцы из Финляндии обучались также в Германии и во Франции. Но много будущих финских мастеров живописи, скульптуры и архитектуры обучалось и в Петербурге. Сроки пребывания этих студентов, будущих мастеров искусств в стенах Академии были различны, но обучением будущих специалистов не ограничивались взаимоотношения Императорской Академии художеств и финских живописцев и скульпторов. Они выставлялись в стенах Академии, им присваивались звания академиков, вручались медали за их произведения.
В августе 1826 года президент Императорской Академии Художеств А.Оленин получил циркуляр Департамента народного просвещения по случаю указа Сената «О порядке сношений с Финляндией», согласно которому упразднялась «Комиссия финских дел» и вводился статс-секретариат, иными словами – культурное развитие Финляндии, его самобытность становилось делом самих финнов. Статс-секретарем в Петербурге стал А.Армфельт, член организованного в Финляндии в 1846 году Финского художественного общества. По его предложению высоким покровителем общества был определен годовалый сын Александра II великий князь Александр Александрович. Передовая часть российской политической и общественной элиты (в частности граф Румянцев и князь А.Горчаков содействовала культурной самостоятельности Финляндии).
Официально императорская Академия художеств не контролировала художественную жизнь Финляндии, да и для самих финских художников «ее эстетические принципы и придворный дух были чужды непритязательным финским условиям»1. Современное им западное искусство давало более реалистические импульсы финским художникам. Взаимоотношения с Академией развивались в плане предоставления заказов на портреты и пейзажи, организацию выставок и продажу картин для продолжения образования за границей, большой вклад внесла Академия в празднование юбилея Финского художественного общества.
Не все финские художники прошли полный курс и завершили свое образование в Императорской Академии художеств, это зависело от той цели, которую они перед собой ставили. И только Гуго Бакмансон (1860-1953) – воспитанник Финляндского кадетского корпуса, а затем офицер лейб-гвардии Измайловского полка, ученик П.Чистякова и П.Ковалевского в ноябре 1899 года получил диплом классного художника за картину «Провожатый».
Среди финских художников, удостоенных звания академика, бесспорно ведущее место занимает А.Эдельфельт, чье творчество вывело изобразительное искусство Финляндии на мировой уровень. Человек уникальный по своей творческой энергетике, он работал в различных жанрах живописи – от официального парадного портрета и исторической живописи до жанровой живописи и лирического пейзажа. В 1878 году он был избран почетным вольным общником. В 1881 году за картину «Похороны ребенка»(1879) он избирается академиком. С 1895 года Эдельфельт – действительный член Академии художеств. Он получает заказ на исполнение портрета императора Николая II, а также приглашение вице-президента Академии художеств графа И.Толстого участвовать в числе двадцати русских художников на торжестве коронации Николая II на торжестве коронации.
Развитие российско-финских художественных связей характеризовалось периодами кульминаций и затишья.2 Особой интенсивностью они отличались в 1870-е годы. Это было обусловлено завершением строительства российско-финляндской железной дороги, что значительно облегчало для финских художников сбыт своих художественных произведений. Второй «пик» интенсивности культурно-художественных отношений падает как ни странно на конец 90-годов XIX века. Наиболее выдающееся событие этих лет – выставка русских и финских художников, состоявшаяся в 1898 году при активном содействии С.Дягилева и А.Эдельфельта в художественно промышленном училище барона Штиглица. В ней участвовали такие мастера как В.Бломстедт, А.Эдельфельт, М.Энкель, А.Галлен-Каллела, А.Гебхардт, П.Халонен, Э.Ярнефельт, Б.Лагерстам, В.Вальгрен, а также наши мирискусники. В том же году эта выставка была перевезена в Мюнхен. Она много дала для взаимообогащения культур наших стран, хотя была неоднозначно оценена современниками. В частности известный критик В.Стасов с присущим ему пафосом резко отозвался о картинах большинства наших и финских художников. Особенно не понравились работы А.Галлен-Каллела, но, в то же время полотно А.Эдельфельта «Прачки» было названо одним из лучших произведений выставки и было высоко оценено с точки зрения его идеи и художественного воплощения этой идеи. В денежном выражении оно было также высоко оценено (3000 рублей). Это была самая дорогая из картин, представленных на выставке. Сейчас работа находится в коллекции Государственного Эрмитажа.
В 1899 году был принят вызвавший бурю негодования в Финляндии и среди прогрессивной русской интеллигенции манифест, ограничивающий права Финляндии. Это нанесло ущерб художественным связям. Финские художники вынуждены были отказаться от сотрудничества с С.Дягилевым. Но интерес к искусству нашего северного соседа не угас, а наоборот возрос. С.Дягилев регулярно публиковал в журнале «Мир искусства» работы финских художников, обзоры, посвященные и архитектуре Финляндии. Процесс взаимовлияния и взаимообогащения наших культур не прекращался.
Яркой иллюстрацией этого процесса служит творческая биография одного из выдающихся мастеров живописи Финляндии Э.Ярнефельта.
Чтобы понять истоки его творчества, необходимо заглянуть в прошлое, проследить историю его семьи. Семейные корни Ярнефельтов берут начало от немецкого рода Келданк, представители одной из его ветвей переехали в Финляндию в XVIII веке и поселились в Саво, в Карелии. Дед Ээро Ярнефельта был помощником начальника полиции округа. Он жил в поместье Ховила, в Томаярви, был женат на дочери Йохана Моландера, епископа Порвоо. У них было восемь детей – четыре сына и четыре дочери, среди которых, Александр, отец Ээро, был младшим. После того, как он преждевременно скончался, поместье было продано с аукциона, и вдова с детьми переехала в Куопио, где они жили, находясь в стесненном материальном положении у своих родственников.
Аврора Ярнефельт хотела, чтобы ее сыновья стали государственными служащими, чтобы они способствовали продвижению финской культуры и противодействовали все возрастающей русификации Финляндии. Только младший сын Александр исполнил желание матери. Закончив в Финляндии кадетский корпус в 1853 году, он продолжил свое образование артиллерийской академии в Санкт-Петербурге, где учился вместе с Николаем Клодтом фон Юргенсбург, с которым он находился в дружеских отношениях. Александр знакомится с младшей сестрой Николая Клодта Елизаветой. Молодые люди полюбили друг друга и поженились. Для Матери Александра этот брак был неожиданным. Она всегда предупреждала своего сына о том, чтобы он ничего не имел общего с русскими и, надеялась на то, что у нее будет невестка из Финляндии.
Предки со стороны матери – Клодты – происходили из Италии. Представители одной из ветвей этого рода обосновались в Эстонии в середине XVI века.
Был приобретен замок Юргенсбург (чем объяснялась вторая часть фамилии – Клодт фон Юргенсбург). Семья переехала в Россию в начале XIX века, и, в конечном счете, обрусела.
Дядя Елизаветы – Петр Клодт был знаменитым русским скульптором, автором коней на Аничковом мосту памятников И.А.Крылову в Летнем саду и императору Николаю I. Ее отец Константин Карлович (1807-1879) был известным генералом, а также первым гравером по дереву в России, преподававшим в Академии художеств в Петербурге. Его дети были также художественно одарены. Михаил был известным художником, профессором Академии художеств, сестра Ольга была художником и обучала рисованию. Двоюродный брат Елизаветы, сын Петра Клодта Михаил был также известным художником.
Елизавета Константиновна и Александр Ярнефельт вступили в брак 22 декабря 1857 года. У них родилось 9 детей, и все они проявляли художественные способности. Очевидно, что талант к изобразительному искусству происходил от семьи матери, и взгляд матери на искусство повлиял на детей. Двое из ее детей стали художниками, так же как многие в их кругу. Как уже было сказано, Александр Ярнефельт был строгим человеком чести и принципов. Но это далеко не полная его характеристика. У него был также литературный и музыкальный талант, о котором свидетельствуют написанные им письма. В письмах Александра к своим детям с особой силой утверждается им мысль о важности образования и развития их способностей. Его письма свидетельствуют о его роли как отца и педагога, но они говорят о нежной любви к детям.
Первые годы после свадьбы Ярнефельты жили в Петербурге, затем в Пулково, т.к. Александр был офицером-топографом в Николаевской военной академии. К тому времени, когда появился на свет в Выборге Ээро (или Эрик, как его называли в семье) в 1863 году, у него уже были два брата, Каспер и Арвид. В начале Елизавета говорила со своими детьми по-русски, а Александр по-фински, но Елизавета стала учить финский сразу же после выхода замуж. Родители говорили друг с другом только по-фински, а не по-шведски, как было принято в аристократических кругах Финляндии. В Выборге старшие мальчики быстро обучились финскому языку, и Ээро не учил больше русский, т.к. у него была няня-финка. Хотя мать и ее младший сын не имели общего языка до тех пор, пока она не выучила язык своей новой родины. Это повлияло на ее отношения, которые не были такими тесными как с Каспером или Арвидом.
В 1870 году семья переехала в Хельсинки, куда Александр был назначен старшим офицером-топографом. Это означало более тесные связи с финско-говорящими кругами, и финский стал языком общения между матерью и детьми также. В дальнейшие годы Елизавета часто работала как переводчик, помогая своим детям: в частности Касперу, переводившему на финский язык русскую художественную литературу. Позже она много помогала Арвиду, кода он писал «Роман моих родителей» в трёх частях.
Развитие финского языка и культуры было основной целью и Александра Ярнефельта. Что касается Ээро Ярнефельта, то ему не была интересна учеба в школе. В пятом классе он стал интересоваться живописью, вдохновленный своим братом Каспером. Ээро восхищался учителем Каспера Хьялмаром Мунстеръелмом, чье влияние очевидно в его ранних работах. Ээро и Арвид обучались рисованию в школе рисования Финского художественного общества с 1874 года у Фредерика Ахлстеда. Вопреки интересам и характеру таланта Ээро, он окончил школу первым учеником и, очевидно, с отличными оценками.
У Александра Ярнефельта были свои планы относительно сыновей, чтобы они продолжали свою работу и заботились о благосостоянии своей страны как государственные служащие. Ээро, очевидно из-за своих идей о продвижении финской культуры, исходящей от родителей хотел стать учителем после окончания школы. Удивительно, однако, что его отец одобрил его увлечение искусством. Это тем более удивительно, с тех пор как не было способа определить меру таланта каждого из сыновей по их ранним работам. И Каспер, и Арвид и их брат Ээро были одинаково талантливы.
Но Александр смог увидеть в Ээро необходимые качества как представителя искусства молодой нации. Патриотизм, стойкость, справедливость общительный характер, возможно, это он видел в Ээро более чем в других своих сыновьях, таких же талантливых и интеллигентных. На взгляд Александра не следовать личному призванию, но ответить на вопрос как каждый человек в соответствии со своим талантом может наилучшим образом продвигать финно-язычную культуру и Финляндию. Личность Альберта Эдельфельта, его патриотизм и его всемирная известность повлияли на мысли Александра о занятиях своих сыновей. Это было время, когда впервые финские художники завоевали международную известность и признание. Основополагающей идеей в творчестве Ээро Ярнефельта стала идея подъема искусства Финляндии на международный уровень и прославления финской культуры.
В 1883 году Ээро Ярнефельт отправляется в С Петербург продолжить свое художественное образование в Императорской Академии художеств. Большинство финских художников в это время учились в Париже, где и Альберт Эдельфельт и Аксель Галлен-Каллела жили уже несколько лет. С.Петербург был естественным выбором для Ярнефельта по многим причинам, одна из которых была та, что его дядя Михаил Клодт фон Юргенсбург был профессором Академии. Пребывание Ээро у дяди и его расходы были умеренными, да и живя с родственниками он не чувствовал себя одиноким на первых порах. Практический аспект был не менее важен для Александра Ярнефельта, у которого в это время обучались в различных учебных заведениях четыре сына и три дочери.
Ээро Ярнефельту не понравился С.Петербург, официальная система обучения, существовавшая тогда в Академии. Но, в то же время это был период возникновения и расцвета искусства передвижников, к которым примкнул его дядя. М.К.Клодт одним из первых подписал манифест передвижников. Вместе с С.Воробьевым и А.Боголюбовым Клодт принимал участие в создании в Академии пейзажной живописи. Воробьев, Боголюбов и Клодт составили правила пейзажного класса. Эти художники подняли на новую высоту русскую пейзажную живопись, считая пейзаж не менее важным жанром в живописи для выражения передовых идей, волновавших русскую демократическую интеллигенцию того периода.
«Михаил Константинович Клодт был крупным художником-пейзажистом II половины XIX века, обладавшим ярко выраженной творческой индивидуальностью. Он оставил нам целый ряд интересных пейзажей, правдивых по содержанию, совершенных по мастерству исполнения, согретых любовью к родине и ее природе.» Он умел связывать в единое целое пейзаж и человека. Помимо таланта художника-творца, он обладал очень редкими в нынешние времена качествами: совести, чести и гражданского мужества. Как уже было сказано выше, он одним из первых примкнул к передвижникам, в то же время он защищал молодых художников демократического направления от реакционной администрации Академии. В 1873 году он отказался поставить подпись под документом, запрещающим молодым художникам участвовать в передвижных выставках. В 1874 году Клодт подписывает письмо-протест против клеветнического обвинения выдающегося русского художника-баталиста В.В.Верещагина в связи с его отказом от профессорского звания.
В то же время его поведение среди художников-передвижников также отличалось независимостью. Он открыто высказал свое мнение по поводу пейзажей А.Куинджи, выставленных на передвижной выставке в 1879 году. Передвижники обвинили его в том, что он сделал это в целях упрочения его положения в Академии. В ответ на это несправедливое обвинение, художник ушел из состава членов товарищества, оставив за собой право, экспонироваться на выставках объединения. Тот час же (хотя и в опосредованной форме) отреагировала передвижническая критика. В частности изменилось отношение глашатая передвижнических идей В.В.Стасова. В частности им была высоко оценена ранняя картина художника «Большая дорога осенью» (1863). Однако, в целом благожелательно отзываясь о картине «На пашне в Малороссии», Стасов там видит небольшой, но портящий впечатление недостаток, якобы шерсть вола слишком тщательно написана художником.
В такую художественную обстановку попадает молодой художник Ээро Ярнефельт. Какова же была его жизнь в Петербурге? В своем письме к брату Арвиду Ээро характеризует ее как «довольно унылую».1 Посещение лекций в Академии в течение дня и рисование по вечерам, кроме этого, рисование и музицирование – вор примерный распорядок дня Ярнефельта. Все же влияние академических занятий мы видим в многочисленных, технически совершенных штудиях деревьев. Самое главное, что было ему близко в России это те культурные, общественные идеи, идеи о реформировании общества, которые обсуждались его родителями и близкими семье людьми в салоне Ярнефельтов.
Удивительно, что в своем дневнике Ярнефельт никогда не упоминает ни одного русского художника по имени, исключение составляет Дягилев, с которым он спорит по поводу вопроса, связанного с Львом Толстым, но не по поводу изобразительного искусства. Вот, что он пишет в связи со своим визитом в С.Петербург в 1897 году: «Много воспоминаний молодости приходят на ум. Но они настолько печальны — о потраченном впустую времени и потерянной молодости. Почему люди видят так поздно свет в своей жизни? Эта ложная самоуверенность, которая не позволит собраться и чувствовать себя скромным перед лицом высшей правды. Но некоторые люди понимают истину с самого начала. Единственная сила заставляет некоторых отойти от края поражения – сила воли. Те, кто приходит к этому, не видят другого выхода». Далее Ярнефельт упоминает «удивительный Эрмитаж», а также Рубенса, Тициана, Рембрандта и голландские пейзажи – как те ориентиры, которые должны быть у каждого настоящего художника.
При завершении краткого исторического обзора и анализе фактов биографии молодого Ярнефельта, возникает дополнительный вопрос о степени влияния Петербурга и учебы в Академии художеств на творчество художника. Некоторые исследователи (в основном финские) говорят об этом влиянии, как об очень незначительном. Есть, напротив, высказывания о том, что Ярнефельт был тесно связан с передвижниками вообще и даже с самим И.Репиным. В пользу первой точки зрения говорят высказывания самого художника (см. выше). Вторая точка зрения рисует уж слишком благостную (в прямом смысле) картину. Думается, что истина, как всегда находится где-то посередине. Свидетельства художника об «унылой жизни» не следует истолковывать однозначно и прямолинейно. Ярнефельт впервые приехал в Петербург в 1883 году и пробыл та вплоть до 1886 года. Если вспомнить биографию самого Михаила Клодта, то это были годы, предшествующие тяжелому периоду в его жизни. В 1880 году он уходит из Товарищества передвижных художественных выставок. В 1886 году его переводят на внештатную должность в связи с болезнью, а в 1894 году окончательно увольняют из Академии художеств.1 В эти году Клодт испытывает сильные материальные трудности. Возможно, атмосфера в доме дяди, возможно первые впечатления от Петербурга повлияли на молодого человека, на то, что его воспоминания проникнуты чувствами уныния и грусти. Можно сказать однозначно, что ему чужда была официальная атмосфера Академии художеств, но она тогда была чуждой для многих передовых и мыслящих деятелей культуры. В процессе обучения в Академии Ярнефельту чужды были бесконечные занятия: лекции, живопись, рисунок, бесконечные натурные штудии. Быть может, с точки зрения молодого художника, в этом было мало творческого. В то же время, как известно, его дядя, как руководитель пейзажного класса, очень ответственно относился к пейзажу, как к жанру живописи. Он воспринимал его не как этюд, а как законченное программное произведение. Поэтому он требовал от своих учеников сначала тщательно выполнить задуманный пейзаж в рисунке и лишь, затем приступать к живописи. В будущем это, несомненно, принесло пользу самому Ярнефельту. Ведь он, как и высоко оцениваемый им Альберт Эдельфельт и другие финские художники того времени на первое место ставил реализм в искусстве. Стремление к реалистическому отражению действительности было характерно не только для русского, но и для всего европейского искусства: реалистическое отражение окружающего мира проповедовала и Дюссельдорфская академия, столь популярная в Европе и у финских художников в частности, реализм и как одно из его проявлений – импрессионизм был во Франции. И его влияние испытали на себе финские художники и Эдельфельт, и Ярнефельт, который после Петербурга отправился в Париж совершенствовать свое живописное мастерство.
Можно согласиться с финским исследователем1, что русская культура в целом оказала глубокое влияние на духовное развитие Ярнефельта через его семью, прежде всего, через чтение произведений русской литературы. Другое дело, что творчество Ярнефельта не было декларативным, как у многих передвижников, оно было лишено острой социальной направленности. Его картины ни к чему не призывали и не будили ни чью совесть. Исключение составляет картина «Лес жгут»(1893)(в искусствоведческой литературе советского периода она получила название «Подневольный труд»), где можно увидеть социально- обличительные мотивы. Социально-обличительный момент усматривал в ней и А.М.Горький. Есть по поводу основной идеи этой работы и другое мнение. Для финского искусствоведа С.Синисало главное то, что эта картина служит прекрасной исллюстрацией мысли французского художника Бастьена Лепажа о символической связи человека и природы.2 Но Ярнефельт, прежде всего, — лирик. Близость природы и человека – вот основной, определяющий момент в его пейзажах, что сближает его творчество и творчество Михаила Клодта. Ярнефельт был наиболее последовательным реалистом в финском искусстве. Для его творчества характерна не только точность изображения природы своей родной страны, ее людей, но через реалистические пейзажи, портреты людей, жанровые композиции, он воспевает свою страну и свой народ. Примером могут служить такие работы мастера, как «Июльский полдень»(1891), «Прачки на берегу» (1889),»Возвращение домой» (1903), «Портрет Матильды Вреде» (1896). Можно считать применимой и к его творчеству формулировку своей личной жизненной позиции выдающегося финского художника Акселя Галлен-Каллела: «Я всегда могу достигнуть той точки, когда моя страна была бы удовлетворена моими достижениями, но мои амбиции зовут меня дальше: все или ничего, первый или последний. Это мой взгляд на мир, который я хочу пронести через всю свою жизнь»3. Идея высокого гражданского служения своей нации, своему народу – это, наверное, то основное, что художник почерпнул из русской культуры и духовной жизни, и что сближало и поныне сближает наши культуры наших народов.

Литература

1. Безрукова М., «Искусство Финляндии. Основные этапы становления национальной художественной школы», М., Изобразительное искусство, 1986.
2. Безрукова М., «Мир Галлен-Каллелы».В журнале «Юный художник», 1990, № 5, с 35-41.
3. Безрукова М., «Скандинавская и финская живопись из музеев СССР», в журнале «Юный художник», 1990, № 10.
4. Безрукова М., «Певец финского народа», в журнале «Культура и жизнь», 1961, № 10, с 39-40.
5. Безрукова-Долматовская М., «С.П.Дягилев и Финляндия. К 100-летию выставки русских и финляндских художников». В сборнике «Проблемы развития зарубежного искусства». Материалы XI научной конференции в память профессора М.В.Доброклонского. СПб, 1998.
6. Березина В., Альберт Эдельфельт и его произведения в Государственном Эрмитаже и других музеях СССР». Ленинград, издательство Государственного Эрмитажа, 1963.
7. Березина В. «О двух рисунках Эдельфельта». Сообщения Государственного Эрмитажа. Выпуск 28. Ленинград 1967.
8. Беспалова Л. «Очерки о жизни и творчестве русских художников II половины XIX века. Т. I». М, 1959
9. Левинсон А. «Аксель Галлен». Суждение о характере творчества и произведениях художника». СПб, 1908
10. «Мир искусства. К столетию выставки русских и финляндских художников 1898 года».” Palace editions”, 1898.
11. Суворова Л. «Финские академисты». В сборнике «Петербургские чтения 1998-1999», с. 472-475. СПб, 1999.
12. Eero Jarnefelt. Finland Ateneum art museum. Helsinki, 2001
13. Martin, Timo, Siven, Douglas. “Akseli Gallen-Kallela. National artist of Finlandia.”. Finland, 1985.
14. Valkonen, Markku.Kultakausi, Porvoo, 1995
15. Vanderdoe, Kirk. “Northern Light. Nordic art at the turn of the century”. Yale University press, New Heyven, London.
В работе была также использованы материалы, взятые из интернета:
• http://finland.ice-nut.ru/finland07502.htm
• http://www.phespirit.info/pictures/finland/g005.htm
• http://www.fennoscandia.ru/scan/30030401.html

Индекс цитирования.

The Wonders That Are Around Us

There are many things in the world that we are accustomed to but usually ignore: buildings, streets, trees, monuments, cars passing by all this is our environment and the part of our lives. Regrettably, very often, you appreciate this when you begin to realize that something from this chain of events has been lost.

I love Pavlovsk because many events of my life are intimately connected to this place and fully captured by this park: I like having the breath of fresh air suffused with forest fragrances, as well as watching its inhabitants — birds and animals and listening to its fabulous sounds.   Not only its flora and fauna are the only things which I enjoy the most, but the beautiful views of the park with its fantastic sculptures and architectural monuments which are created by the talented architects and landscape designers, who implemented their ideas about ideal nature in such a picturesque scenery.  Designed by prominent painters, sculptors, architects and landscape designers, it, as it may seem, aims to inspire to create something.

As long as I’ve been visiting this park, I’ve got to know every its corner.Nevertheless, every time I see these dearest places, your relationships with them are becoming stronger. At the same time, you discover something new for yourself. The memorial office of Anna Ivanovna Zelenova, who was the director of the Pavlovsk Palace Museum for more than 30 years, became one of these new things. This «museum in the museum» located in one of the palace’s wings. Not to admire the exquisite adornment of the rooms do people come there, but to pay tribute to the memory of this outstanding person, without whom the renovation of this absolute treasure of our culture and the place that people like visiting could hardly be possible.

Here one can feel what it is the essence of any memorial museum exhibition: it is the effect of presence; it is that characterizes the person. The atmosphere of these museum’s rooms is very compelling. Every visitor is welcomed by the museum keepers who, as it may seem, are ready to talk about Anna Ivanovna for hours.As for the director of the Pavlovsk Museum and Natural Resort, every time he arranges the excursions for the Museum’s guests of honor, he leads them in this cabinet. Every exhibit here is the genuine thing: it belonged to Anna Ivanovna Zelenova, its former owner. It speaks for itself. The office is modestly furnished: a large writing desk, bookcases, books, pictures on the walls. Every object gives us the information about this wonderful woman. On her desk, one can see papers, technical drawings and the set of drawing tools, which she always used for her work. The large half-length portrait of her, painted with oil-based paints on canvas, and the landscape of the Pavlovsk Park, it is all that could be considered as luxuries. For everyone here, Anna Ivanovna is like the person who is near and dear to them. She made the impression of an ordinary person that she considered herself. She just did the job she loved, and, at the difficult time for our country, simply doing her duty, trying to be maximally useful. However, after the decades, it has become clear that what has been done was predestined. Not being a person of good health, but possessing truly iron will, she had to do many things that an average person couldn’t usually afford. You can’t help but think about that when standing in the Palace’s corridors in front of the more than individual height photographs of the ruins of the Palace, taken a right after the end of WWII.

What it was, the war? One can remember the sage words Konstantin Simonov, the Russian prominent writer and poet. He said that the war is different. A soldier in a trench sees one thing, a commander — another, and civilians — something else. What did the war mean for museum employees? Looking at the photo, published in the book of memories of Adelaide Jolkina (the adopted daughter of A.I. Zelenova) about Anna Zelenova. It portrays for women: Elena Nikolaevna Elkin, the director of the Summer Garden Museum, Anna Ivanovna Zelenova, the Director of the Pavlovsk Palace Museum, Marina Alexandrovna Tikhomirova, the Keeper of the Peterhof Museum and Evgenia Leonidovna Turova, the Director of Palace Museums and the Parks of Tsarskoye Selo. «The Invincible Blockade Brotherhood» — it is the caption of this photo. They are standing very closely to each other, and, probably feeling happy and satisfied with outliving one more day and doing their utmost for the benefit of their country and museums, firmly believing in our victory. Like these days, at that time, the vast majority of art historians and museum employees were women, who put on their shoulders all the hardships of the war. Anna Ivanovna Zelenova is one of them. Her life, which was filled with work and cares about her friends and loved ones, her personal and professional duty to her country, seemingly, came naturally to her. At the same time, to a great extent, her life is so unusual that it deserves to be turned into the feature film- biopic, which judging its sophisticated twist of plot and the temperature, wouldn’t be inferior to other contemporary movies nominated for the highest film awards.

In fact, there are many films, created by our filmmakers, about the labor exploits if workers, dedicated scientists, brave soldiers, militiamen athletes, rock climbers, etc.However, one film has not been created yet: the film of a big scale, which glorifies the heroism of the people of one of the most peaceful professions -museum employees, curators who take care of the cultural legacy of the past.

She came to work in the Pavlovsk Palace Museum in 1934. Although she was a very young girl, she had to go through many serious tests during her life and, eventually, she had gained the mature wisdom. She was born in an ordinary family. Her father worked as a mechanical engineer; mother was a skilled dressmaker. Honesty, diligence, empathy, aspiration for knowledge and enthusiasm for learning — these were so important values were being instilled in her by her parents during the years of her childhood. She had the lifelong passion for studying and was ready to share her knowledge and experience with others. When she was a student of the Peterschule, the famous German school in St.Petersburg, she gained the excellent drawing skills while attending the classes of design. Subsequently, these skills come in handy, when her father fell seriously ill, and she had to earn a living by taking a part-time job as a draftswoman. Like many talented people, Anna Ivanovna showed her aptitude for many areas of human activity. In her childhood, she attended the classes in the Ballet and Drama schools. While studying at the Art School and participated in the Theatre Director Courses, she taught illiterate people to read and write. She possessed the outstanding engineering capabilities from her father that is why she had studied at the Machine-Building Institute for two years. Then she was fully embraced by the desire to study humanities, and history of art. She studied at the Leningrad University, the Linguistic Faculty, specializing in art history, and at the Philological Faculty of the A.I.Hertsen Pedagogical Institute as a part-time student. After studying at the Courses of Proletarian Guides, she developed a significant number of manuals for excursions around the city, many of which she conducted herself.

No sooner had she been taken on, then she drew the attention of her colleagues. After a short time, she was asked to conduct the demonstration excursion. After a brief period, she was invited to conduct the demonstration excursion.

She was a hard-working person. Anna Ivanovna wrote manuals for guides, under her leadership, the Museum displays were formed (mainly in the Rose Pavilion and Pavilion Krik destroyed during the WWII). Importantly, she the vast amount of work was done at that time: she made the inventory of the exhibits which were kept in the Museum, the Rossi library. In addition to this, the architectural inventory of the Museum was made. In 1940, the group of the Academy of Arts students was assigned for the practical experience in the museum. The students had to sketch and make measurements of the details of the architectural decor. It was vital for that time. Despite the fact that all museums, palaces and private collections were nationalized in our country, they were in a very poor state, and their funds with the exhibits of the great value were embezzled by those who were in power at that time or held a higher position. These people considered the cultural legacy of our country as their private property, which could be sold abroad or given in the form of bribes, or seized for the purpose of arranging their life. It is known that Alexei Tolstoy, the famous Russian and Soviet writer, who was so distinguished by the Government, came to the Pavlovsk Museum to select some pieces of the Palace’s antique furniture for his dacha situated nearby. One could have the courage which had Anna Ivanovna to commit such an act, which was committed by her. She dared to remind the famous literature classic that she,  apparently made a mistake, and what he saw there, it was not objects from a warehouse he was able to choose for himself; all those thighs belonged to the Public Institution.

The talents of Anna Zelenova were appreciated very soon. She was offered a job as a member of emerging team of the newly founded Museum of the History of Leningrad, which was allocated in the premises of the Rumyantsev Mansion which was located on the English Embankment. The Museum Staff set a goal to organize the historical museum which was so necessary for our city at that time. For this great purpose, such talented people as Anna Zelenova was were of the utmost importance.

But the real challenge for her was the evacuation of the works of art from the Pavlovsk Museum. She came back there in the summer of 1941, almost immediately after the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, as the person authorized for the evacuation of the items of the high cultural value and the representative of the administration of the city. Despite the fact that as early as in the year of 1936, the Special Commission, which was responsible for the evacuation of the exhibits was established due to the orders of the Administration of the Leningrad’s Palaces and Parks, and the particular plan for evacuation artworks in the event of war or emergency state had been created, the situation in the Pavlovsk Museum was not simple. The Museum administration was totally supportive of the position that conservation of the Museum exhibits, is the solution to the problem they would have to face to in the near time. All valuables that could be replaced were moved to the first floor. However nobody could realize the degree of the impending disaster, nobody could even imagine that the bomb would fall into the Palace itself. The two weeks, so necessary for collecting and packing exhibits had been lost. At that point, Anna Ivanovna made the crucial decision: to evacuate all that could be evacuated and bury carefully everything that couldn’t be taken away. In this way, the Museum’s collection of the Ancient Greek and Roman sculptures of a high value was saved.It was hidden in the vaults and bricked up in the wall. To mask the sculptures some tricky things needed to be done. The newly built part of the wall, behind which many sculptures were placed, had been splattered with the cement mortar and mud. But for the great effort of Anna Zelenova, this so valuable collection wouldn’t have survived and remained unharmed. Many statues were buried in the Park. And all this work was done by the joint effort of residents, who didn’t go to the battlefront: the seniors, women, and teenagers! But it was still not all that had to be done.There were many problems that needed to be solved: the selection, packing and transporting items designated for evacuation were the problems of the vital importance those days. At the same time, the research staff was engaged in the process of documentation about the valuable things: they were sketching fabrics, furnishings, architectural details of the Palace. These documentary sketches that helped in the reconstruction of the Museum exhibition had become the invaluable asset for the reconstruction of the Palace after the War. Anna Ivanovna went permanently round to describe in detail what she saw. Everything was in perfect order: everything was documented with the utmost precision. Considering the severe conditions in which titanic work had been doing, such as the thunder of exploding shells, constant power cuts, the museum staff the Museum staff made heroic efforts to have everything done on a tight timetable. The part of exhibits was evacuated in Gorky(Nizhny Novgorod) and Sarapul. However, the majority of the exhibits were stored in the basement if St.Isaac’s Cathedral. Anna Ivanovna left Pavlovsk September 15, 1941,  when the Germans entered the city. It was a very long and arduous way, which she had to cover on foot.

Then the 900 days of blockade, the anticipation of the victory and her work in St. Isaak Cathedral followed.

The exhibition «To be remembered» devoted to the 60 anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War was opened in the cellars of St. Isaac Cathedral. It was aimed to tell us about the exhibits of the suburban palaces-museums which were stored in these premises at the time of WWII. The activity of Anna Ivanovna Zelenova was also reflected in this exhibition. To keep these exhibits in so terrible conditions was not as easy as it may seem. The cellars were damp, there weren’t heated, some premises were flooded. The museum employees had to use every warm and fine day to dry the exhibits. For example, between the columns of St. Isaac’s Cathedral were stretched the ropes, on which the antique carpets were drying out.

Only in winter of the year 1944 did Anna Ivanovna come back to Pavlovsk. There is the photograph taken by her and named «The Palace’s tears.» This piece of melted lead from the roof of burning Palace looks as if it is the tears of herself. Nevertheless, above all, she was the person of action. At that point, it was necessary to take an immediate action. First and foremost, the state organizations, which were in charge of the city’s museums must be informed of the urgent necessity of the renovation the Palace and Park. She did that with the perseverance and conviction so characteristic of her. If we read her report of the first post-war curatorial round, it becomes clear that there is virtually no Palace, but then, in the second part of her report, she gives with relentless persistence the list of the survived details and items from the Palace, which could be restored by using these objects. The following tasks were to conduct conservation, in other words, to protect that little what had been preserved, and to that end it was necessary as quickly as possible to restore the roof of the Palace. To implement this idea, Anna Ivanovna did everything to get the best construction equipment. Such a crane was only in the Office for the Construction of Airfields. However, there was no chance to get this crane. In this case, Anna Ivanovna uses all her connections, even the casual ones, appealing to human emotions.  Once, while she was going somewhere by tram, she met the soldier with whom she was familiar in the pre-war period. It was a real stroke of luck for her because this soldier had worked as a sculptor before the beginning of the war and had the significant working experience.This soldier served in the units of the State Airfield Management. He suggested how to make an appointment with S.M.Sapgir, the engineer captain of the State Management of Airfield Construction in People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), who, as it turned out, was very fond of Pavlovsk. He and his wife loved to walk in the Pavlovsk Park in the pre-war period. But, despite his desire to do something to help Anna Ivanovna, he couldn’t take such a major decision, and then he decided to help this courageous woman who would get her way, by all means, even though it would come to the talks with L.Beria, the almighty head of NKVD. Considering the tenacity and perseverance of Anna Ivanovna, S.M. Sapgir suggested her to whom should refer Anna Ivanovna when being in Moscow. He did everything to help Anna Ivanovna to meet with L.B. Safraz’an, who was the deputy of Beria.Even though he was a very determined and willful man, he could value faithful and devoted to the idea people. As a very passionate person with the excellent skills of convincing people in her rightness, Anna Ivanovna had achieved the necessary backing.

In addition to the Palace, which was transformed into the ruins, the Park which employed several generations of artists, architects, gardeners, was destroyed and disfigured by the fascist barbarians. The park had been mined by fascists who left a countless number of mines on its territory. Every day during the mine clearing of the Park, many field engineers, among whom were young girls, were killed.

The meticulous work on the restoration of the Palace’s interiors, the creation of the museum’s exhibition and restoration of the park lands was to be done. Here is where the most valuable materials saved during the war as well as the records, layouts, and sketches made by Anna Ivanovna and her staff had proved to be useful at the moment. For example, the carefully made drawings by T.A.Bazhenova were used for the restoration of the old tissues, curtains, upholstery and the famous canopy over the bed of Empress Maria Fiodorovna.

Instead of the thousands of trees, which had been mercilessly cut down by the fascist, the new saplings were planted in the places of stumps of the old ones. The species of the new trees were being selected accordingly.

In addition to scientific issues, the Director of the Museum was, literally overburden not only with the housekeeping problems (e.g. how and where one can get the money, building materials to restore the Palace and Park) but also purely domestic, everyday problems. During the first post-war years, people didn’t have enough food to eat, very difficult it was to get firewood for heating the museum’s premises and living houses, there also weren’t many things which were so necessary for everyday life. In those years, Anna Ivanovna was responsible not only for herself and her elderly mother, but she took care of her employees. She was constantly going on foot to the city to bring food on the sleigh because she had a special passport for going from Pavlovsk to Leningrad. She also arranged with residents about the milk from their cows to help the sick and disabled employees as well as their children.

In parallel with these everyday economic problems, it was necessary to work out the solution to other problems related to the future museum’s exhibition, methodical developments for the future tours and attracting the highly qualified staff. She had managed to unite and encourage the team of great experts by her ideas. Together with Anna Ivanovna worked outstanding masters: the architect Fedor Fedorovich Oleynik, Anatoliy Vladimirovich Treskin-  a very gifted artist, who couldn’t imagine himself without brushes and paints, Natalia Ivanovna Gromova, who inspected the restoration works, Mikhail Markovich Kozlov, a very experienced specialist, who was in charge of  the team of parquet layers and Viktor Yakovlevich Evseev — an expert in the upholstering and decorative works. She was helped by the like-minded people such as Nikolay Viktorovich and Zoe Andreevna Weiss, Stanislav Vladimirovich Tronchinskii. The Very complicated relationship did Anna Ivanovna have with Anatoly Mikhailovich Kuchumov, the Curator in Chief of the Museum, but nevertheless, under his guide, the exhibition plan of the Pavlovsk Palace was developed. He perfectly felt every piece of the exhibition and knew the history of each object which was exhibited. Possessing an excellent visual memory, he could determine where one or another thing is originated from, he also knew what is stored in the world’s leading museums, because he visited these museums or carefully examined their albums and catalogs. Together with Anna Ivanovna Zelenova, they were doing one great and necessary for all people job.

Anna Ivanovna had managed to defend her plan for the reconstruction of the Palace in the most difficult discussion where she insisted on keeping to the appearance of the palace in the form in which it had already existed during the reign of Maria Feodorovna. Among the most determined opponents of Anna Ivanovna was Anna Petrovna Chubova, a major expert in ancient art and architecture. She insisted on restoring only the central part of the Palace, which was created by Charles Cameron. With the great difficulty, using her innate skills of persuasion and tack, having great respect to the merits of A.P.Chubova, Anna Zelenova brought to real life her plan of the restoration of the Palace, which included the renovation of the Vincenzo Brenna’s galleries.

The Palace and Park had been gradually revived turning into those Palace and Park that people had known before the war. However, these great results, which had been achieved by the enormous efforts, could have been nullified due to the different circumstances. Someone of the high-ranked people had found «more useful» application for the empty building and vast land around it. Such ideas, as the concept of the accommodation in the Palace’s rooms Zootechnics College, Tuberculosis Hospital for children or Naval College, were put forward that time. Having the ardent desire to gain moral support, Anna Ivanovna wrote to Igor Emmanuilovich Grabar, the nationwide known academician.

There was the grave danger for the Museum. There are many sad episodes in the history: many museums were virtually destroyed in our country in such a way after WWII. The high number of the museum’s items were distributed to other museums, and their buildings, which were used for other purposes were coming to terrible dilapidation.

The results of this, so called, wise use of the museum areas, we still can see, for example, in the Gatchina Palace and the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoye Selo. Nevertheless, the miracle, which had been so passionately desired and expected for such a long time, had happened, and the first ten rooms of the Palace were inaugurated in 1956. The danger was over. By the year of 1970, the Palace was restored completely. To see this human-made miracle people came from everywhere forming the very long queues to get the tickets to the museum. Not only the Palace and the Park were restored, but the spirit of the Pavlovsk itself had been brought to real life. Everything there was permeated with art. The Palace served its purpose as the venue for many exciting events such as the concerts of the famous all over the country artists. Igor Ilyinsky, Lyubov Orlova, Yury Visbor liked to give their performances in this wonderful place.  Elena Obraztsova the world famous opera star  started her artistic career giving her first concerts there when she was a conservatory student. Ironically, at that time, which was considered to be stable and trouble-free, when the most fundamental painful problems had been successfully resolved, and the Palace had become one of the most famous tourist brands, as it became apparent, such people as Anna Ivanovna was had not been needed. The new time, which was also known as the era of stagnation, created the need for new people: not active and dedicated, but vain people, who feel comfortable in the museum’s environment of those days, not willing to go beyond the instructions and orders of the administration. What’s more, to succeed in their careers, these people needed to be close to the Communist Party’s circles. In 1978, Anna Ivanovna had to resign from the position of the Director of the Museum. She had been transferred to the Department of the Culture and Education in the Gatchina Palace. She died in 1980 shortly after that. She died on her battle station while speaking at the meeting of the local branch of the Communist Party which took place at the Pavlovsk Palace. Given her personal life, which, in fact, she didn’t have, she accomplished a feat. So dedicated she was to her scientific work at the museum that she couldn’t imagine her life without her lifelong dedication: she saved and preserved the Pavlovsk Palace and Park for the future generations. Her work and everyday life were tightly interwound. As a result of the restoration of the Palace-and-Park ensemble, new methods of conservation and restoration of the cultural object during the war were discovered, developed and then widely used. Years later, when the scientific community decided to give her a doctorate on the grounds of the great results of her work, but without defending the dissertation,  she rejected this offer, motivating her statement by the idea that as a real citizen and patriot, she had never earned wealth for herself by taking the advantage from the disasters of her compatriots.

Her human feat means the love for her motherland and her people. It was expressed in what had been done. She was able to defend, revive and restore the essential — the cultural treasures of her country. She struggled for the Pavlovsk Museum before the war, when it was widely believed that such an unbalanced and talentless ruler, who was, in the opinion of the art historians, Paul I, didn’t need to be commemorated. What’s more, everything that was created under his order as well as by the will of the other crowned customers, appeared not thanks to their efforts, but in spite of them. The idea that it was for talented masters from people who were able to withstand the oppression and tyranny, which predominated in our country at that time, was widely supported by the Soviet art critics and experts. In their opinion, these artists from people demonstrated their bright talents, creating buildings, sculptures and other great pieces of art, amazing their descendants. Under the leadership of this fragile woman, who had a real iron will, the Palace and Park had risen from ruins and ashes. And now, returned to the people, these world treasures continue to live the life that was given to them by their creators, life which seems to be breathed into these masterpieces to revive them for posterity. A genuine spirit of the era, which was brought to real life, was the result of the efforts of her and the Museum staff. It is not the modern beautified replica of the old architectural ensemble, but the monument to the whole historical period. Looking at the Palace and Park, I can’t help but come to the idea that if Emperor Paul I and his wife Maria Feodorovna left such a memory after themselves, they deserve to be made a low bow.

Anna Ivanovna has never been forgotten by the Museum staff, but only now for some reason, her personality, her life, and work have caused the new wave of public attention. Such phenomena as Perestroika, economic reforms in our country and establishment of the new social consciousness have, undoubtedly, contributed to this. To a great extent, the activity of the Director of the Museum since the 1990s, considering the degree of responsibility in decision-making is something akin to the director’s activities during the war. How to restore the Museum objects, many of which are in a very poor state, where to find the sponsors or the patron of the arts, and finally, how our cultural heritage should be advertised in our time when the vast majority of people is interested only in the material things? To be able to solve these problems you need to be a truly dedicated and outgoing person, like it was Anna Ivanovna Zelenova.

Unfortunately, we accept as a truth that, as a general rule, talented and dedicated people in our country remain not understood by their contemporaries. The great things are seen from a distance. Now, after already almost thirty years from the time when Anna Ivanovna passed away, many things have been done to perpetuate her memory. In the year of 2005, her Memorial Office was opened in the Palace, one of the Pavlovsk’s streets was named after her, the contest on the best design of her monument took place. After all, she was named as a person of the 20th century. It goes without saying that everything that was done for people by her deserves to be mentioned as often as possible. Every kind word should be said in the memory of this bright person, who brought back to our life these wonders, which are around us and which we never want to lose.

The materials used:

Аделаида Елкина. Сделайте это для меня. Общество «Знание». С.Петербург. 2005

The interview with Nikolai Tretiakov, the Director of the Pavlovsk State Museum Reserve.

http://www.stroy-press.ru/?id=4433

The materials from the websites:

The cultural layer. Хранители. http://www.5-tv.ru/programs/broadcast/391/

Iryna Marchuk The fans of Pavlovsk choose the monument to AnnaZelenova My neighbourhood: http://www.mr-spb.ru/story/pushkn/story_3670.html

The Union of Museums of Russia. The exposition of the Pavlovsk Museum-Reserve http://www.souzmuseum.ru/news/2006/Ekspozicii_Muzejazapovednika_Pavlovsk.html?SID=9b1a17a2be9d38bb90a10c03c8e6c78d

St. Isaac’s Cathedral. To remember. http://www.cathedral.ru/museum/exhibitions/remember

ГМЗ «Павловск» http://www.pavlovskmuseum.ru/museum/pavlovsk_history/poteri/

Architect Kostantin Thon and the destiny of one of his creations (St.Catherine Cathedral in Tsarskoye Selo)

The summer of the year of 2006 I spent in the town of Pushkin which is located 23 kilometers from St.Petersburg. While working in the open air, I noticed a large building foundation pit, fenced with a high fence and located on the site the central square near Gostiny Dvor. This vast area was limited by the Moskovskaya, Pushkinskaya, Oranzhereinaya and Leontievskaya streets. In the center of this large square, there was the statue of Lenin, next to which, in the 1990s, had been set up the wooden cross with the information plaque. In this plaque, it was written that in this area there was St.Catherine Cathedral the main temple of Tsarskoye Selo, which was designed by Konstantin Andreevich Thon, the distinguished Russian architect.

As I got to know later, the pit I saw in the square, had been dug in connection with the archaeological excavations of the temple’s basement. The excavations were held to solve the problem of the restoration of the cathedral and building it in its initial location as it had been done with the Christ Saviour Cathedral in Moscow.

Konstantin Thon is the architect and the author of the projects of these cathedrals, the expert in architecture whose merit in the field of architecture cannot be overestimated. He left a rich legacy. Today, many of the buildings created on his projects, we can see in the streets of our cities. He built in Moscow, St.Petersburg, Novgorod, Pskov, Kazan and Tomsk. The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, The Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow, the Moscow Railway Terminal in St. Petersburg, the Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Peterhof,  the St.Vladimir Cathedral in Sevastopol- this is not a complete list of those buildings, which were built by this  architect,  known nationwide.

He made a significant contribution to the activity of the Russian Academy of Arts, where, he spent most of his life: as a student in the beginning, then as a professor, and for the last 17 years of his career (from 1854 to 1871), as a rector of the architectural department. In addition to teaching and administrative activities, Konstantin Ton was actively involved in the work on the reconstruction of the Academy of Arts building and its environment. Some of the biggest interiors of the Imperial Academy of Arts — the meeting room and library were created on his project (later on, in the mid-60s of the 19th century, these rooms were renovated under the supervision of his pupils). The Home Church of St.Catherine, which was consecrated in 1837, was also designed by him. The landing stage near the Academy of Arts with the original sculptures of Ancient Egyptian Sphinxes brought to St.Petersburg in 1834, is also the creation of this wizard. Since that time, these sculptures have been considered as the symbols of our city and its guards.

Konstantin Thon was a broadly educated person who had considerable expertise in the area of his activity. He was perfectly prepared for his future profession when studying for 12 years in the Academy of Arts; he had there such excellent mentors as Adrian Zakharov, Thomas de Tomon, and Andrei Voronikhin. After graduating from the Academy in 1815, he got the second gold medal for the draft of the Senate giving him the right to the additional in-depth training. However, due to the different circumstances, which were beyond of his control, his trip had been postponed for four years. Only in 1819, he set out his journey to Italy, where he studied the ancient architectural monuments in detail. Apart from Italy, Ton had been living in Paris for a time. When living in this city, he attended the classes at the École Polytechnique, where, at those days engineering disciplines were taught by the best experts in Europe.

This knowledge was very helpful for the young architect when he returned home. A wide variety of information about the architectural monuments of Old Russia he gained during his studies of architecture was also to his advantage. Konstantin Thon is one of the first Russian architects who paid close attention to the comprehensive study of the world’s architectural heritage and its application to the contemporary building practice. His original method deviates from the conventions of the Russian classical architecture in the first third of the 19th century. The innovative approach of Konstantin Thon was based on the concept of the freedom of the logical framework. It wasn’t fettered by the canons of the selection decision.

Konstantin Thon can be considered as the founder of such a style in the Russian architecture as eclecticism, the method of the «smart choice» of various architectural styles. In the opinion of A.P. Brullov, his contemporary and like-minded person, «architecture is, first of all, the art of the space distributing and combining.»The role of the architect, as it was thought, was the role of the leading builder and organizer. Thon firmly believed that the construction of any building is impossible without the engineering-geological research of the area. The search of a constructive solution and precise calculations were considered to be the main stages of the designing process. As a result of such an attitude, Konstantin Thon had always got the efficiency of the building process and the operation of the building, as well as the convenience and benefit of people for whom it was intended. In the opinion of Konstantin Thon, the external appearance of the building «should express its essence.»

As it was considered in those days, all architectural styles that could be created had already existed or created. The emergence of these styles and trends was attributed to many factors such as history, geography, climate, etc. Architects had to take into account the experience in construction that people gained for years.The classical style in architecture was considered by designers, not as the only architectural style, suitable for buildings for various purposes. So, for example, the home of a shoemaker look like an antique house with a peristyle. Similarly, in the expert’s opinion, a laundry shed shouldn’t imitate the classical buildings with porticos such as the Ancient Greek or Roman temples. Accordingly, the appearance of the Russian Orthodox Temple should resemble the old Russian temples of our ancestors. The studies of the architectural monuments of the Old Russia had been initiated at that time. On the initiative of A.N.Olenin, brothers Efimov were being carried out measurements of the Ancient Russian architectural monuments in Moscow, Kiev, and Vladimir. Another initiative of A.N.Olenin  was to organize the expedition, led by K.M. Borozdin, with the same purpose. Very often artists and architects were inspired by the images of ancient monuments in the landscapes of such Russian artists as F.A.Alexeev, M.N.Vorobiov, A.E.Martynov as well as the sketches of Giacomo Quarenghi. The great enthusiasm that played an important part in the victory over Napoleon in the Patriotic War of the year 1812 led to the great interest in the history of Ancient Russia. The image of the ideal temple, which would resemble with an Ancient Russian church, was needed to express the idea of patriotism. For this purpose, in the year of 1835, Konstantin Thon met with  S.D.Nechaev, who was the attorney-general the Synod at that time. Following the recommendation of A.N.Olenin, S.D.Nechaev suggested the architect collect the images of the examples of the churches for the atlas to be published in the future.

The first issue of this atlas included the designs of the churches created by Konstantin Ton between the years of 1830-1834. The second issue of this atlas was published in 1844. This issue was the extended edition of the first album: the examples of some pillar-free temples were added to the designs of the churches mentioned above. Nevertheless, the emerging Russian architectural science was guided by the concept of borrowing, according to which, the Russian architecture, was considered as a conglomeration drawn from other architectural techniques and forms. For example, the style of ancient Russian monuments, as though, was divided into several styles. Besides the Russian style, other styles, which were in the architecture those days, were also existed.

To solve problems emerging in the process of designing buildings and churches, Konstantin Thon, elaborated his creative approach. Even though he had the extensive knowledge of ancient Russian monuments, he did not copy them blindly. The temples created by Konstantin Thon can be reduced to several types such as a cross-domed Greek temple, pillar-free temple, and the church combines with the narthex and belfry. At the same time, Ton makes his start from «not a particular image and form of a temple, but from its type, which was created by ancient masters. He changes the ratio of his layouts for churches.» Contrary to the ancient temples, which layouts were usually extended to the East-West direction, his newest temples had the form of a square.

Using all his knowledge and practical experience as an architect and design engineer, he carried out the constructive tasks when building temples in his way, creating the comfortable environment for people attending church services and saving some necessary construction materials. Looking for the ways of expanding the internal space of the temple, Konstantin Thon found the solution to this problem. He achieved this goal at the cost of walls and pylons, which thickness was reduced and, therefore, extra space was found. Inside of his churches, Konstantin Ton set up the air-heating system, creating thus an additional comfort for the parishioners.

As for the decoration of facades, the architect created many details, drawing his inspiration from the old Russian architectural monuments. Such elements of the Ancient Russian architecture as small and corbel arches (also known as kokoshniks), stone-belts and blades, were borrowed from the old churches of Russia. However, centric layouts, the large divisions of facades, the contrasts of great volumes — all this shows the significant influence of classicism in Russian architecture in those days.

«Russian style, — writes I.Sviazev, the colleague of Konstantin Thone and the person who shared Ton’s opinions of architecture, — is capable of its further improvement and development. Like the style in literature, it has the same relations to the old art, like the poem about Prince Igor, which was also written by Pushkin in Russian, but in which manner?»

In such a Russian style was built the St.Catherine Cathedral in Tsarskoye Selo. Its project was created in 1831. The church was consecrated in the year of 1840. Before the construction of this temple, the main temple in Tsarskoye Selo was a small Znamenskaya Church, which was built in the 1740s, situated next to the Catherine Palace and the Imperial Lyceum.The shopping and business center of Tsarskoye Selo was formed Just near this church. The significance of the town of Tsarskoye Selo as the imperial residence had increased over the years. The city had been expanding, and Its population had been growing. As far back as at the beginning of the 19th century, the defensive ramparts, which had been built at the margins of the town, were removed and replaced by Moscow Street.

The little church in honor of Our Lady (Znamenskaya) was too small to meet the needs of the town’s residents. Therefore, Emperor Nicolas, I made the paramount decision to build a larger Cathedral whose capacity would be 2000 people, the construction of which was financed from the Tzar’s treasury.

The main feature of Konstantin Thon’s churches, which should be singled out, was that the architect could perfectly fit his temples into the surrounding landscape and urban environment. The place for St. Catherine Cathedral was chosen on a hill in the town center. Importantly, the height of the church allowed to perceive it not only from a close distance. The St.Catherine Cathedral was perfectly visible from every corner of the town, and from the local railway station. It was important because this station was located on the first Russian railroad, which also was built on Konstantin Thon’s design.

Looking very similarly to other churches designed by Ton such as the Church of St.Catherine on the Kalinkin Bridge in St.Petersburg, the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Peterhof, this temple didn’t seem to be enormous and massive. Five-domed temple with the centric layout, about which we can judge only from photographs, drawings, the memories of contemporaries, looked very easy and elegantly. The composition of its facades was not overloaded with the decor.  The smooth surface of its walls looked like it was cut with the high narrow windows whose round edges repeated the silhouettes of its arched gables. The large arched decor accentuated the surfaces of the cupolas’ tholobates making it look much easier and expressive. The entrances to the temple were marked by the deep perspective portals with the semicircular edges. Besides the main altar, there were the two side chapels inside the church, which appeared in 1852:  the Chapel of the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky on the right side of the temple and the Chapel of Constantine and Elena, the Saints Equal to Apostles. The linear drawing of the iconostasis created by Konstantin Thon has survived to the present day. It was about 2.13 meters in height. Symmetry, lightness, harmony of proportions, elegant lines — all this makes it very close to the best traditions of classical art.

At that time, the multi-level iconostasis of St.Catherine Cathedral was guilded. The icons located on the first level were covered with the gilded rizas, which were made of the money raised from people’s donations.

In the sacristy of the Cathedral were stored the cross with the relics St.Feodor Tiron and Barbara Great Martyr.  Many other precious, sacred things such as the icon with a particle of the relics of Abraham, the Arch with a particle of the relics of St.George, the Great Marty and the robe of Virgin, silver chalice with the paten, the cross, and the Gospel were also stored in the Cathedral. All these artifacts were the gifts from Empress Catherine II to the St.Sophia Cathedral, given in the year of 1783. In addition to these sacred things, the «Crucifixion» painted by  A.Van Dyck and «The Glory of Mother of God,» created by Paolo Veronese, draw attention to themselves.

Originally, the Cathedral was painted inside in bright colors. However, during the restoration process, carried out by the architect S.A.Danini, when the gliding of domes, which had been severely suffered during the fire of the old wooden Gostiny Dvor, had been resumed, the Cathedral had been repainted in dark colors.

In the town of Tsarskoye Selo, where the features of the lifestyle of a peaceful country town and the lifestyle of the brilliant capital city were blended, the St.Cateherine’s Cathedral held a special place among the churches belonging to the Palace and Military Departments that had been prevailing by the time of its construction.        It is known that Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev, was baptized in this cathedral in 1912. Another well-known person, Yakov Vasilievich Zakharzhevsky, who was the General Manager of the town of Tsarskoye Selo, was buried here.

After the year of 1917, the history of the Cathedral turned into drama and logically was going to its tragic end. This chapter in the Cathedral history had started with the death of the first new martyr and Petrograd Eparchy Archpriest Ioann Kochurov, who devoted his life to pastoral and missionary activity. He was loved and respected by his flock and highly appreciated by Tikhon, the prelate of the church and the first Patriarch of all Russia after the restoration of the Patriarchate in 1917.

A few days after the October Revolution, on October 13, 1917, the detachments of armed Red Guards, sailors and soldiers moved to Tsarskoye Selo. The residents of the town were in a panic. Many people flocked to the Orthodox churches, to find some solace. The St.Catherine Cathedral was overcrowded. After a special prayer on the cessation of the intestine warfare, Archpriest N.I.Smirnov, together with the other priests of the Cathedral, Father Ioann Kochurov and father Stephen Fokko performed the procession around the temple.

Encountering no resistance, the Bolsheviks entered Tsarskoye Selo on October, 31, in the morning. The round of the apartments and following arrests of the officers had started. Priest Ioann Kochurov was arrested, taken to the outskirts of the town to the Feodorovsky Cathedral, and there he was shot dead, allegedly, because he prayed for the victory of Cossacks.

Subsequently, Father Ioann was buried in the Catherine Cathedral, and his death caused the claim of the St.Petersburg’s Diocesan Council to the Parish Councils of the St.Petersburg Eparchy about financial assistance to the family of Father Ioann Kochurov and other families of those killed for the faith. In the year 1994, Father Ioann Kochurov was officially recognized by the Russian Orthodox Church as a newcomer martyr.

And then the fate of the St.Catherine Cathedral, as the fate of many temples in the Soviet period of rebellion against God, was sealed. On June 1, 1938, the Pushkin District Council sent the petition to the Leningrad city council for closure and demolition of the Cathedral, substantiating their decision by the opinion that the Cathedral as a building «doesn’t constitute cultural value.» The petition had been approved. Due to the Decree of the Leningrad Oblast General Executive Committee 1938, July, 1 St.Catherine Cathedral was closed, and then it was blown up in June 1939.

In the evidence of an eyewitness, on June 5, 1939, at the White night: «Suddenly a deafening explosion resounded. The Cathedral flew up, raised itself above the ground like an epical hero, rose from his place, carrying along the cloud of dust, and suddenly fell flat, as moved down to earth.» It was the second temple created by Konstantin Ton, the temple which was subject to the cruel act of vandalism. As a result of an inherently evil political action. In this case, it is interesting to note the fact that art critics and experts were trying to corroborate this cruel act of vandalism by giving their expert opinions of the necessity of these actions. The easiest way to explain this need was to state the opinion that the buildings designed by Thon do not belong to the masterpieces of Russian architecture, but only embody the idea of loyalty to autocracy.These concepts supported the idea of the famous triad of the time, namely «autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality» — the principles to which was stuck the Russian czar, Nicolas II. Even the attitude of the Ton’s contemporaries to his creativity was ambiguous, even unfair. V.V.Stasov called Constantin Ton «a rough and uneducated bricklayer,» and A.I. Hertzen characterized the Byzantine style of Ton as «wild.» At the same time, Ton was highly appreciated by his colleagues at the Academy of Arts for his exceptional professionalism. It is precisely this fact that when being as a Rector of the architectural department, Konstantin Ton paid particular attention to the teaching of engineering subjects. He believed that the architectural design should not be confined only to the painting of the facades. The students of the Academy of Art, who were prepared for the career in architecture had practical training experience at the construction area of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The merits of the architect were highly valued by his colleagues from abroad. He was a member and a corresponding member of some Italian academies, as well as an honorary member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. However, the first point of view on the Ton’s creativity was determinative in the period of 1830-1860s. Only since the 1980s, the creative works of Ton and this time in the history of Russian architecture were objectively assessed.   In the evidence of an eyewitness, on June 5, 1939, at the White night: «Suddenly a deafening explosion resounded. The Cathedral flew up, raised itself above the ground like an epical hero, rose from his place, carrying along the cloud of dust, and suddenly fell flat, as moved down to earth.» It was the second temple created by Konstantin Ton, the temple which was subject to the cruel act of vandalism. As a result of an inherently evil political action. In this case, it is interesting to note the fact that art critics and experts were trying to corroborate this cruel act of vandalism by giving their expert opinions of the necessity of these actions. The easiest way to explain this need was to state the opinion that the buildings designed by Thon do not belong to the masterpieces of Russian architecture, but only embody the idea of loyalty to autocracy.These concepts supported the idea of the famous triad of the time, namely «autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality» — the principles to which was stuck the Russian czar, Nicolas II. Even the attitude of the Ton’s contemporaries to his creativity was ambiguous, even unfair. V.V.Stasov called Constantin Ton «a rough and uneducated bricklayer,» and A.I. Hertzen characterized the Byzantine style of Ton as «wild.» At the same time, Ton was highly appreciated by his colleagues at the Academy of Arts for his exceptional professionalism. It is precisely this fact that when being as a Rector of the architectural department, Konstantin Ton paid particular attention to the teaching of engineering subjects. He believed that the architectural design should not be confined only to the painting of the facades. The students of the Academy of Art, who were prepared for the career in architecture had practical training experience at the construction area of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The merits of the architect were highly valued by his colleagues from abroad. He was a member and a corresponding member of some Italian academies, as well as an honorary member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. However, the first point of view on the Ton’s creativity was determinative in the period of 1830-1860s. Only since the 1980s, the creative works of Ton and this time in the history of Russian architecture were objectively assessed.

And nowadays, about the archaeological excavations of the Temple of St.Catherine, we have to encounter the problems of real justice. It is the matter of justice to this creative work of the architect, disrespect to people, who did their utmost for the prosperity of their country and were buried in this temple, and, finally to many residents of the town of Tsarskoye Selo going to the Cathedral where they happy or when surviving their sorrows. It was decided by the Managing Committee of City’s Property, the Society for the Protection of Monuments to restore the Temple by the year 2010, the 300-anniversary of Tsarskoye Selo. The money for this project was supposed to raise by involving sponsors. On the excavated foundations, perfectly preserved since the construction of the Temple, it is planned to restore St.Catherine Cathedral by using the archival drawings, which were found in the Moscow archives to build a replica of the Ton’s church. Despite the fact that it will be a newly constructed building, possibly the temple and the area around it, will be the symbol of reviving human conscience, renewed faith, and national unity.
Bibliography

 

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  2. Всеобщая история архитектуры в 12-ти тт., т. 6,М., 1968, 536 c.
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  6. Булгаков Ф.И. Храм Христа Спасителя в Москве. В журн. «Вестник изящных искусств». 1883. Т. I, вып.4. С. 623 -635
  7. Город Пушкин. Историко-краеведческий очерк-путеводитель. Составитель Г.К. Козьмин. СПб, 1992, 318 c.
  1. Кириченко Е.И. К.Тон. В кн. «Зодчие Москвы», кн. I, М., 1981, с. 251 – 259
  2. Лисовский В.Г. На рубеже Классицизма и эклектики. В журн. «Строительство и архитектура Ленинграда», 1981, № 8, с. 34 – 36
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The materials from the Internet:

15.http://www.pushkin-town.net/.pushkin/rus/nowhram.htm (последний вход -07.05.2010)

16.http://www.spb300.osis.ru/vek19/F19/1831-1840/1840.shtml

(the last log in 07.07.2010)

  1. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Екатерининский_собор_(Пушкин) (the last login —

07.05.2010)

 

St. Petersburg Academy of Arts: the history of educational activity beyond the school curriculum. A brief research

Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, and Education — all these words can be read above every of the entrance doors in the main round-shaped courtyard of the Academy of Arts building. These words are seen as the motto of this educational institution, the oldest Russian Art Academy. Every year, tens of students, the future painters, graphic artists, architects, and art critics enter The I.E. Repin St.Petersburg State Academy Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Being within the walls of the Institute, not only students have  the professional training and gain the necessary skills, but interact with their mentors, any of whom are outstanding figures in art and culture, persons of the world reputation. Thereby, the cultural and educational environment so beneficial for students has been created.

At the same time, the educational activity of the Academy of Arts in the past and the I.E. Repin Art Institute now has never confined itself to the school activity only. The importance of this fact can hardly be overestimated. A considerable amount of work in this area has been done since the foundation of the Academy, and nowadays this work is being done to support art-lovers in their desire to acquire basic knowledge and gain the necessary skills in arts.

These days, the educational activity in the I.E. Repin Art Institute is very versatile. Apart from the formal preparatory courses for the future applicants, who are willing to take courses to prepare for the entrance exams, there are other courses such as the Evening Drawing Classes and the Faculty of Professional Development for the teachers of art schools and colleges. These departments of the Academy follow the long-lasting historical tradition which dates back to the 19th century.     As far back as in the years of 1835-1841, Pavel Andreevich Fedotov, an outstanding Russian artist attended the Academical evening drawing classes. He had the ticket number 241, which gave him the right to participate in these training sessions.  Admittedly, P.A. Fedotov didn’t become a professional artist within the days. Serving as a Beefeater at the Finnish Regiment, he drew just for his delight and very often doing a favour for his friends when they asked him to draw the caricatures of their brother officers. He made the crucial decision to be into art when, as he thought, he wasn’t very young, at the age of 26. He couldn’t resign from the military service immediately due to financial reasons; that’s why he attended the Academy’s Evening Drawing Classes in his spare time. Pavel Fedotov used any opportunity to acquire skills during the classes as well as while painting and drawing from life.

Another reason to attend the classes regularly was the proximity to the Academy from the Finnish regiment’s military quarters, which also were located on Vasilievsky Island. Therefore, it was very convenient for Fedotov to set aside the time for art studies. It is also known that Pavel Fedotov was assigned directly to the second form after the entrance exams: students of this year must copy exceptional drawings of famous artists. However,  Pavel Fedotov attended academic classes occasionally, when, in his opinion, it wasnecessary.

The exact meaning of these words, the courses weren’t a professional educational institution; Students needn’t to follow a particular schedule; attendance of the classes was the matter of their choice. Most of the audience consisted of amateurs. Servicemen, merchants, in other words, people of a great variety of ranks and social positions came there. At the beginning of 1830-s Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol also attended these classes.

The close collaboration between the Society of the  Society for the Encouragement of the Arts (which was also called The Society of the Encouragenent of the Artisits until 1875) and the Academy played an important part in the history of the Academy’s educational extra-curricular activity. Later the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts became to be called as the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts. In 1820, three private individuals P.A. Kikin, the secretary of state, Prince I.A. Gagarin, and lieutenant-colonel A. I. Dmitriev-Mamonov founded the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts. Then two more art-lovers V. I. Keel and F. F. Shubert joined to them. Those five people signed on November 30, 1821, the initial «Basic Rules for the Guidance and Activity of the Society.» The aim of the Society was the popularization of artworks by organizing permanent exhibitions, art lotteries and the commissions on artworks.

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The 1820-30-s were the years when the Academy experienced significant financial difficulties that affected its educational activity. A.I.Olenin was the President of the Academy of Arts at that time. Many investments were made in the construction of the new buildings, reconstructions of the old facilities and improving living and studying conditions of the students. Therefore, there weren’t extra funds for the incentive payments for the successful students. The Society for the Encouragement of the Arts organized in addition to the Academy medals, three medals for distinguished students: 1 medal of the first rate and two medals of the second. In 1821 Karl and Alexander Brullov were awarded and sent overseas for the additional vocational training. In 1827 Alexander Ivanov, and in 1830 N.G.Tchernestov and A.V. Tyranov were also sent abroad. The Society also allocated means for the trips across Russia. The Society of the Arts Promotion also paid for the tuition of those young artists who took classes from some of the famous artists. N.G. Tchernestov learned from Vorobiov, N.S. Krylov learned from Venetsianov, A.N. Mokritsky, and T. G. Shevchenko studied at the Karl Brullov’s studio.

In 1824, the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts organized a special class where attendants could paint and draw from live models. Everyone could attend this class, even though they were not allowed to do this at the Academy. The Society paid significant sums of money (about 1500 roubles a year) for the attendance tickets for art lovers making them possible to attend the Academy’s painting and drawing classes.

The new stage of the educational extra curriculum activity of the St.Petersburg Academy of Arts had started since the second third of the 19th century. The new drawing school, founded on E.F.Kankrin’s initiative, had appeared in 1839. Children from a lower class could enter that school. It was a purely technical school, which was patronized by the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts. Later, in 1857, this school was taken over by the Society. After the closure of the lower classes of the Arts Academy in 1959, many of former students of the Academy continued to study at that school. Instead of the two classes of drawing as well as the classes of sculpture and design, five classes of general drawing and ten special classes were set up. 1000 students attended that school where 15 teachers worked. It was a single school, which students were prepared for the entrance exams to the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. Later on, the branches of that school were opened in St.Petersburg’s suburbs (on the Peterhof and Shlisselburg roads) In 1870 the Museum of Art and Industry was inaugurated in the school premises, and since 1861the Friday Drawing Classes started functioning. The new curriculum was created in 1868. There were two departments at that school: the department of general drawing and arts and crafts department. The programs of the Drawing Department consisted of the following levels:

Preparatory

  1. The drawing of the 3-D objects and shading
  2. The drawing of the ornaments of different styles from the plaster casts
  3. The drawing of the parts of the human body and plaster masks
  4. Pencil drawing from the plaster cast busts and plaster casts full height sculptures
  5. Sunday class. The pencil drawing of the live model.
  6. Watercolour copying from the classic originals.
  7. Watercolour painting of the real objects.
  8. Arts and Crafts Department The acquaintance with the trades and technical skills of each handicraft.
  9. Draftsmanship
  10. The Composition of the Ornaments
  11. Sculpting the simple ornaments from clay.

44.Woodcut from the plaster casts, wooden models, and drawings

  1. Woodcut and lithography.
  2. Painting on porcelain, highly glazed pottery, glass and copper enamel.

There were a museum and library at school.

I.E.Repin tells us about his school studies in his Memoirs and Reflections.

 At that time the School was located in the building of the Stock Exchange, near the Palace Bridge. The tuition fee, which was about 3 roubles per year, was quite affordable for the students. The first work for which I.E. Repin received the highest grade, number 1, was his drawing of the burdock leaf from the plaster cast.

At that time, many great tutors, such as a P.I: Zerm and R.K. Zhukovskii taught at school. Nevertheless, the leading figure was I.N. Kramskoy, who won full trust and respect of the students. He used to come to the students only on Sundays, so it was tough to take the most advantageous position to paint live models during Kramskoy’s training sessions. Shortly, I.E. Repin realized that he got everything possible from the School of the Arts Promotion Society, and he was advised to attend the lectures and training sessions at the St.Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts as an auditor. To achieve this goal Repin needed to arrange to be let in with the Academy’s inspector. He also needed to pass the exam on drawing the plaster cast head and pay a quite significant for those days fee — 25 roubles per year. He doesn’t have such a sum; that’s why, following the advice of his acquaintances, Repin found the patron, who paid for his tuition.

The second area of the Academy’s extracurricular activity in the second half of the 19th century was teaching the future gymnasium and elementary drawing school teachers. It was vital for the period of the development of capitalism in Russia. During the first century of its existence, the Academy had been solved such global problems as arts education and guidance of painters, sculptors, and architects, who were capable of performing high state orders and promote fundamental state ideas. Not only in Russia, but in other European countries, where the fast pace of the industrial development led to the necessity in highly qualified specialists, it was the need of the people engaged in craftsmanship and who have artistic skills. All in all, it was vital to have the people who could, draw, design and decorate the things of everyday use and improve the appearance of this stuff. For this purpose, it was not necessary to have the higher artistic education. For the first time, it was necessary to arrange the educational process in gymnasiums, colleges, and elementary art schools, to meet the demands of the modern society. Although the students in the Academy were trained by the highly qualified specialists: painters, sculptors, and architects, however, students weren’t taught the teaching methods. The Academy’s Sunday Drawing classes were set up in 1872 to work out this methodology and give the examples of teaching the subjects related to art.  The senior students of the Academy were engaged to lead the training sessions for the future drawing teachers.  For the Academy of Fine Arts, it was the innovation.

Later, those classes were closed, and The Pedagogical Courses for the Preparation of Drawing Teachers were set up in 1879 under the aegis of Grand Prince Vladimir Alexandrovich. The primary purpose of these courses was stated by V.P.Shemiot and V.F.Evald (the director of the St.Petersburg 1st Technical College) in the Report on Founding Pedagogical Courses under the protection of the Imperial Academy of Arts. In their opinion, to raise the social status of the drawing teacher it is necessary to apply to  the authorities  to help the people who are honoured to be the teachers due to the new regulations in the educational institutions where they are to work, giving them the same rights as to other teachers who teach other school subjects and award them with the same cash and pension. Similarly, the same rights for a pension should have the teachers at the Academy of Art’s normal school. The traditional school, attached to those courses, was also found to give the illustrative example of the correct and rational drawing as a general subject included in the school curriculum. All in all, the aim of these courses was «the creation of the nurseries of ideal teachers.»

The normal school, which was attached to the courses was founded to bring the teaching methods given in these classes to real life. The program of these courses was planned for two years. In the first year, the attendees gained the theoretical knowledge, attending the lessons of the experienced teachers and making their learning guides and albums for students. The second year was devoted to practical training sessions and the writing analysis of the lessons which were given by the students of the courses at the normal school. At the time the sessions started working, there weren’t any restriction to the number of the attendees. About 50 people a year were admitted to the courses. Later on, the enrolment tests were introduced. Only those students of the Academy of the  Arts who studied in the class of the Live Models Painting and drawing could attend these courses. It was not like a few years ago when the first-year students of the Plaster Cast classes, were also permitted for attending the courses. In 1887-1888 the lessons on calligraphy were added to the school curriculum.

The curriculum in the normal school attached to the courses was planned for the four-year period. The children aged between 10 and 14 were admitted to the first form, in the second form the students of 11-15 years old were taught, and the third form was attended by the students between 12 and 16 years old. The certificate of education was required for the application to the school.

«School must restrain the student individuality within the defined bounds with the purpose of getting them accustomed to self-restriction, thereby giving them reasonable and purposefully the possibility to apply their will when they are involved in their independent activity in any area, not the arts only,»- in this way the founders of the school understood the primary goals of this educational institution.

At that time, the professors of The Academy of Arts tried to demonstrate and give the proofs of the leading role of drawing in the contemporary life to the society. Their activity was aimed to educate people and get this message across. So, in the report of A.V.Makovsky, the academician of painting, which was addressed to the 4-the International Congress on the Drawing and Applied Arts and Crafts, Education, it was said: «To study somebody how to see the world around us — is a very challenging task. In the case when our capability to understand is well-developed, everything around us  easier comes to our mind and more clearly understood. The teacher of drawing is — the closest assistant of the university professor.» «It will be simpler to make new ways if the government takes care of the all-round development of our country’s industry to make drawing  turned from comprehensive into the genre of art which is applicable to real life.» On the other hand, the presenter focused on the creative approach to the drawing education. «We don’t need to give only skills, but knowledge to the students,» — it was said in the report. The teaching methodology, which was used in some of the German schools was given as a negative example.

So vital were considered the goals which were set by the Academy’s courses that the special commission consisting of such outstanding artists as A. I. Rezanov, A. I. Somov, D. I. Grimm, V.P.Vereschagin, and V.I.Jakobi were founded. These courses had been functioning until the October Revolution of 1917.

The Revolution of 1917 and all related events made a tremendous impact on all areas of the Academy’s activity, including education and extra-curriculum activity. During more than 30-year period, until the beginning of the 1930s, the Academy had changed three times its official name, and that fact, in V.G.Lisovsky’s opinion «wasn’t  considered as the formality only», it was for «the instability of educational system at that time, uncertainty of its goals and ambiguity of its status.» This devastating for the academic system period of the dramatic search for the right methods in arts and teaching, finished in 1932 when due to the order of the Government of the Russian Socialist Federative Republic issued on October 11, 1932, was founded the All-Russian Academy of Arts.

The documents, coming from the period of the beginning and the middle of the 1930s, tell us about the work of the courses, which were functioning that time in the Leningrad Highest Artistic and Technical Institute and the Leningrad Institute of Painting, Architecture, and Sculpture.

One of these documents is «The Instruction on the Preparatory Courses for Workers in the Leningrad which is related to April 1930. In this Instruction, it is told about the entrance regulations, terms of study and the budget of the courses. The primary purpose of these sessions was the preparation of the young people from the working class for the entrance exams to the All-Union Institute of Art and Technology. The apprenticeship at these courses was one year, during which the applicants studied particular subjects as well as made up the deficiency in general knowledge. Although the established learning was one year, in fact, the length of study varied for different students, depending on their fundamental skills and knowledge. Some of the students studied at the Courses for more than two years. Those students who finished Courses admitted to the Institute without the entrance exams. The young people from the age 25 who had 5-year of the working service, at least, and the volume of knowledge which was equal to the experience of a graduate of a five-year comprehensive school were admitted to this school.  In addition to this, the young people of the age less than 25 who had only three years of the working service, but with the volume of knowledge of a 7-year comprehensive school was also admitted. The work day at the enterprise where the attendees of the courses worked was two hours less than the work hours of the rest of the workers. For the attendees of the Courses, the classes and training sessions were free. The Courses were financed by the trade unions. By 1937, these courses were called off.

As it is known from the archival documents, summer short-term courses worked in the Academy in summer 1937. The mailing report on the organizational work of these courses has come to our day.

These courses for the teachers of art colleges and schools were founded for the learning of the advanced teaching methodology. During the almost two months (since June, 20 to August, 4) 50 teachers from the different cities of our country, did the tasks on various subjects, such as painting and drawing, attending the lectures of the Institute mentors and also visiting different Leningrad museums and listening to the excursions on different topics.

Apart from the courses, there was the faculty for preparing the working class young people for the future study at the Institute (RABFAC). As well as the courses, this department solved the similar problem: to prepare the young people for the working class for the education at the Institute. In these courses the classes on professional training were organized, in addition to these classes, the students enrich their knowledge of general subjects to meet the requirements of the comprehensive school. For the young people of different ages the 3-5 year labour experience was required. The training period in the day and evening departments lasted for four years. To be admitted to the Faculty for the Working Class Young People (RABFAC) the applicants should pass the entrance exams. For the full-time education, there was the exam on testing the knowledge of the volume of the 5-year comprehensive school. To be admitted to the evening courses the students were required to pass the exam on general subjects according to the requirements of the 6-year comprehensive school and also the exams on painting and drawing.

 The Great Patriotic War disrupted the flow of the studying process. Many students went to the battlefront, most of them were not destined to come back. Nevertheless, the students and professors honourably got through, and the new page of the history of the Academy’s educational extra-curriculum activity was turned over. In 1944, after the evacuation, the Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture returned home. That year, the Institute was awarded to be named in honour of I. E. Repin, and the All-Russian Academy of Art was reorganized as the Academy of Arts of the USSR.

In 1959 on the initiative of M.G.Manizer, a prominent Soviet sculptor, the evening drawing classes were opened anew. This event becomes a milestone in the history of the Academy of Art and national art in general. The tradition, which comes from the 19th century, when the society had the need in art education, was continuing. The progressive-minded intellectuals had a desire to help people’s artists to raise their professional skills to the proficiency level. Admittedly, after the Great Patriotic War, many art workshops and studios appeared in the different palaces of culture as well as at the various enterprises where art classes were organized. However, the Evening Drawing Classes at the I.E. Repin Art Institute were unique.

Not only were these classes unique because they aimed at the broad audience, and anyone who has the artistic capabilities was able to attend these classes, but for their unique program. This program, which was similar to the curriculum of the Repin Art Institute, helped the attendees to gain the knowledge of the basics of the classical drawing. Many people at that time expressed the desire to be taught in these classes. By the year of 1979 300 people attended these classes. It was a small number in comparison to the number of the students, who attended the Society of Arts Promotion School at the beginning of the 20th century. At that time it was 1772 students. Despite that, the Academy of Arts and the Repin Art Institute were trying to solve the problems with finding the premises for the classes to satisfy the needs of people who wanted to learn more about art or improve their artistic skills. After the looking for such facilities, the solution was found. It was the apartments in the Liteiny Yard, whose residents were given new accommodation by the city’s authorities

The Evening Drawing Classes curriculum is planned for the four-year period. The Classes curriculum includes: 1st year — the drawing from the plaster cast classical ornament, 2d year- the drawing of the old plaster cast portrait sculpture. 3d year — the portrait from a live model. 4th year — the drawing of a nude model. During these four years, the typical dropout of the students takes place. After finishing the studying course, the students are given a diploma.

 Since the beginning of the 1970s, the educational extra-curriculum activity of the Academy of Arts and the I.E. Repin Art Institute has achieved a new level. In 1972, according to the order of The Ministry of Culture of the USSR from June, 19, the Faculty of Development of Vocational Competence was organized by the Repin Art Institute, for the purpose of the vocational training of the teachers from the different regions of our country.  The faculty aims to educate the specialists who have at least five years of working service after receiving their necessary diploma. Besides the tasks of painting, drawing, and composition and writing research works for the art critics and historians, there were given the lectures on philosophy, aesthetics, and the teaching methods. The students of this faculty visited museums and participated in conferences and seminars. The educational period lasted for a year. During this time 40 experts from the different corners of the USSR improved their vocational skills.

It is worth mentioning the term of the 1980s-90s, which is called the post-perestroika period. Those years not only the I.E.Repin Art Institute but many educational and research institutions experienced the significant difficulties related to finances and structural changes. These years are considered as the turning point in the history of our country. Our life has significantly changed.The Academy and Institute got over with the most difficult situations. Nowadays, the Faculty of the Advanced Vocational Training as well as Drawing classes, where the best professors of the Institute are working, is working very productively. In addition to this, the number of potential students who has the desire to gain knowledge of art is growing every year. Even on the Internet, we can find very enthusiastic comments about the Drawing Classes where almost everyone who has the necessary knowledge in the drawing can apply for tuition and be taught by the experienced teachers for a very reasonable price. In this way, any person who teaches art can improve their level attending the classes at the Faculty of the Professional Development. The continuity of traditions is the primary foundation of the Repin Art Institute and its core rule. Nevertheless, there is greater room for our improvement. The administration of the Academy of Arts and the professors of the I.E. Repin Art Institute is not going to be complacent. Nowadays the new teaching methods based on the great traditions of national and world art, are being elaborated. Particular attention is paid to the individual approach to the Academy students, applicants and the attendees of the courses. These principles are the core of our educational system which gives a support to the talented people, who will probably be  the outstanding artists in the future.

Bibliography

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My short memoirs about A. L. Korolev

 

 

 

Many outstanding painters, sculptors, architects, and art historians have studied at the St. Petersburg Academy of Art, which walls witnessed many personal histories. It’s worth remembering for the rest of your life. The atmosphere of the Academy evokes such recollections. It often happens when I immerse in the recollections of those people who is not alive, walking along the long Academy’s  corridors with arched ceilings: at the moment when I start looking at the photos of the Academy’s professors, which are placed on the walls. When I walk to my workplace, listening to the resonating sounds of my steps, I come to realize all significance of these personalities, the people, who leave a mark in the history of our Alma Mater. Many generations of the graduates are grateful to these people for the knowledge they passed on.

Alexander Leonidovich Korolev, my tutor and the professor of drawing, is one of them. When I was a student, he worked in the Andrei Andreevich Mylnikov’s studio as a teacher of drawing. His lessons, as well as the teachings of Andrei Andrei Andreevich, have become for me, invaluable assets, which I use throughout my conscious life as an artist.

I got to know about Alexander Leonidovich in 1979. At that time, we were very young and enthusiastic people, who set ambitious goals, being eager to overcome all difficulties and enter the Repin Art Institute which has always been called the Academy of Arts. Then many young people come to the Academy from everywhere, from all corners of our country which had vast territories those years, including the lands of all the former republics of the Soviet Union. For some of them, it was the first time experience when they have to prepare for dealing with the tough entrance examinations, while others had already had the negative experience of the failure. That’s why we decided to go all lengths to organize the preparation process.

At that time, it was quite a complicated problem, because there weren’t any official preparatory courses. Viacheslav Danilov was the person who propelled the idea of organizing such courses; we totally relied on him. He had been living in Leningrad for a few years, so he had some experience and organizational skills. As a graphic designer, he worked in one of the offices and was provided by his organization with a room where he lived. By using good connections among the administration of his office, he reached an agreement, according to which we could rent a few rooms in the building waiting for the repairing work and whose residents had been provided with the new accommodation. It might be for the Soviet mismanagement or the unjustified extravagance that the city authorities preferred to turn a blind eye to the facts like this. Nevertheless, we were lucky to have a place for our studies. All necessary facilities were functioning: water supply, electricity, engineering and heating system. The latter was precisely the facility we needed the most. If we have heating system functioning, it is the guarantee that the models who posed and to whom we have to pay wouldn’t quit their job. On the contrary, they felt quite comfortable. Later we decided to invite more attendees for the financial reasons.

To find out the potential students for the newly-founded courses, Slava Danilov mentioned above, got permission from V. I. Statsenko, the executive secretary of the Repin Art Institute Acceptance board to be present at his meetings with people who were about to decide whether or not to apply for the entrance exams. Those, young people, showed Vladimir Ivanovich their homework, asking him for advice, hadn’t been the applicants, though. For some people, in his opinion, it would be better to submit their homemade artworks to the acceptance board and wait for the official permission to take the entrance exams. For others, the best option would be not to apply for the Academy exams. There were quite a few people, talented and suitable for this educational institution, but they weren’t trained enough to pass the entrance exams that year, and therefore, those people were invited to attend our courses.

After all, we got through everything: we found the premises and agreed with the models. And finally, we had to find a teacher. Undoubtedly, it was Vladimir Ivanovich Statsenko, who became our mentor; now it is working in our Institute as an associate professor.

Thanks to Vladimir Ivanovich, the newly opened classes drew attention of many potential hopefuls very soon. We had many talks about art, as well as on how the real artist should think about their creativity and everyday life. From him, I got to know about Alexandr Leonidovich Korolev. Vladimir Ivanovich was a sage person: he had never interfered in the work of his student and always tried to make the students find a solution to their problem by themselves. It often happens in real life: if you want to persuade your partner to do something do it in such a way as convincing them that it is their idea, not yours; and not in a preaching or humiliating manner.

In that way, we were taught drawing. Vladimir Ivanovich tried to give us the material in the most convincing way, explaining by his words, supporting his explanations by schemes, which were drawn aside, in the margins of our drawings. He told later that Korolev’s method was the most preferable teaching method for him.

The next acquaintance, yet distant with Alexander Leonidovich Korolev and his method was made when I was the student of the Repin Art Institute, studying at the B.M.Lavrenko’s and G.I.Manasherov’s studios.

Between my current classes, I dropped in the A. A. Mylnikyv’s studio to see how the senior students were working on their tasks. What I liked the most was visiting the midterm exhibitions and learning from the works of senior students. I found out many useful things to take into account and use them later in my drawings and paintings.

Finally, for me as well as for my other classmates, it became the time to choose the studio and the professor to work with for the three years of studying as a senior student. It goes without saying; I submitted my application to  Andrei Andreevich Mylnikov’s studio. I couldn’t help but was very excited when I found  that I was accepted. I was making plans for the subsequent years of my studying. In such a positive mood, I started my third-year study.

Everything was unusual for me from the beginning. Instead of small rooms, where we had had our classes, I got to a spacious studio. We worked along with the four-year students. We could see their work process and learn from their experience.

There were three models in our studio, whose figures were represented the different types of male body. The eldest model was Uncle Sasha (as we called him), a retired man, very lean, not tall — he might be in his mid-seventies. Using his figure as an example was very convenient for studying the structure of the different parts of the human body. Another model was Alexey Grobov, whose slenderness and well-proportioned body reminded me of the ideal forms of the Ancient Greek and Roman sculptures. And finally, Kostia, the former sailor, the man of average height, stocky, with impressive muscles and well-trained body, who reminded to a certain extent, the heroes of Michelangelo’s masterpieces.

Then I chose Alexey as a model to draw. What I would like to express is the flexibility of his body. I still remember our first class on drawing. It was an ordinary session, but Alexander Leonidovich, as it seemed to me, came out of the blue. It was not a very tall man, who was dressed in a suit which was as neat as a new pin. His well-trimmed hair were grizzled. His face with a radiant smile as well as his eyes looking at us attracted me. Quickly overlooking our group, he swiftly approached us. The work had started, it was his work.

Alexander Leonidovich didn’t pass over any of the students. He had stopped near everyone, starting his meticulous analysis of each student’s work, giving some tips. It took about 10-15 minutes for each student. At that moment, his cheerfulness had gone, and he became very focused. During that short time, he gave the student very detailed instructions describing the way  in which each work should be continued. Importantly, he drew the schemes left or right on the same sheet of paper,  near the student’s work. Finally, I was able to see that in reality.

Alexander Leonidovich said: «Observing a human body carefully, you need to recognize the position of its different parts when the weight of the standing model rests mainly on their one leg. To depict this position you need to  know about body’s vertical and horizontal axes and also about a horizontal plane, standing on which, the model touches by  the feet of their bearing and free legs.»

He was of the opinion that the proportions of the human body should be defined more precisely, during the process of drawing. However, he didn’t recommend using measuring tools: the only sense of proportions and the ability to compare the sizes of the different parts of the body, such as legs, hands, torso, etc., — is the method for an artist to follow.

It is necessary to recognize the longitudinal and cross segments of the body when defining the foreshortening, trunk bending, and different perspective. This stage of work requires a significant amount of attention: you need to grasp the position of the body in space, identifying its movement and posture. It is also important to understand how one part of the body followed by another. To depict very sophisticated forms of the human body, you need to draw a preliminary scheme, identifying body’s structure, and then you need to complicate this framework step by step.While drawing a model, it is advisable to keep the same position, looking at the figure from the initial point of view, however, you don’t need to stay in the same place. It is recommended to go round the model and look intently from different angles to understand better their shapes which you are going to depict.

You need to analyse regularly the anatomy of the human body: it helps to deal with such a problem as the copying of the model without understanding its structure and forms and gives the opportunity to realize the body shapes, expressing this in the art forms.

«At the beginning of the task, — said Alexander Leonidovich, — lines as contours or the auxiliary elements for building up forms in the drawing, are crucial as the means for creating the artwork. In his opinion, three-dimensionality should be expressed by using the methods continuous-tone drawing. Only by these methods and paying attention to the model’s proportions, character, and materiality can you depict correctly human body. You should not divide your work on your drawing into different stages separated from each other, such as building up, placing the figure in a particular position, identifying its proportions, modelling by tone, etc. All these stages are closely connected to each other and require your attention.

While Alexander Leonidovich insisted on the holistic approach to the artwork, he paid lots of attention to the integrity of lights and shadows, the changes of which need to be followed. As usual, these contrasts are more distinct near the source of light, and gradually become less evident when they are more distant from it. The contrasts are much lower on the objects which are located further from the eyes of an artist. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the line which exposes the structure of a form.

The drawing could be not very sophisticated, and the changing of its tones could also be very smooth. However, it is recommended to keep to the correct ratio of the tones: from the darkest to the lightest within the range of the tonality that you thought of.

The line should help you to define the boundaries of bones, muscles, and tendons. In this case, the line and tone in the drawing should complement each other, depicting the object of a human body.

When working on the picture of the human body, you need to express the naturalness in its pose or movement, not being led by the model, who tends to change their position, misleading the artist. Korolev always said: «You need to remember that changing the position of a human body doesn’t mean that its proportions also change.»

«In due course. — Continued Alexander Leonidovich, — you acquire the necessary skills to work without a preliminary scheme, which helps you to draw the human body. You will have this scheme in your mind, but taking into account some ground rules: and you needn’t be immersed in the boring process of drawing a figure, which, admittedly, is necessary when you learn how to do this. You will have a more creative attitude, having a desire to analyse human figure, nevertheless.

In addition to the scheduled drawing sessions, I tried to set aside the hours to draw over time with the senior students. Alexander Leonidovich encouraged us to do extra work. As for me, being a third-year student, I often attended the drawing sessions with the five-year students, where more difficult tasks than we used to do were given to the attendees: according to the program, they must make a picture with two male figures.

I would like to admit that it was the group where there were many very talented students, who later became remarkable artists and teachers. Alexander Kirovich Bystrov is one of them. He currently is one of the leading professors in our Institute. I learned much from this group.

Alexander Leonidovich was a very versatile mentor. Apart from practical training, he was engaged in the academic and educational activity. His articles about the methods of drawing were published in the Institute’s scientific editions. He gave lectures. Luckily, I attended one of his lectures. It took place in 1986, in the premises of the Academic Drawing Classes, in the Liteiny Yard. Many people gathered there, being interested in absorbing the information. After a quite a short time, the drawings which were used for this lecture were exhibited in the office of the dean of the Faculty of Painting. All materials, which had gained and elaborated during his pedagogical career and laid the foundations of his theoretical research, were presented at that exhibition. For me, as well for many students, these materials were great value. It was Sergey Machehin, who was a student, from the group which were a year younger, and, in addition to this, a very skilful photographer: he took the photos from the exhibited schemes. Later, I made a special album with these pictures. This album was very helpful for me when I taught my students.

Drawing for Korolev was the area, where he was in his element: he was passionate about drawing. The primary goal of his pedagogical and academic activity, for Alexander Leonidovich, was the protection and increasing the traditions of the Russian classical school of drawing. Then he told us many times that the Russian school of drawing is one of the best.

He told us about his academic missions in different countries and various educational art institutions which he had visited. The material he gathered was used at that time for the preparation for a significant number of scientific conferences.

Alexander Leonidovich was astonished by the fact that in spite of his expectations in such countries as Italy and France, which by right are considered as the cradle of classical art, many realistic traditions in art teaching were lost. He was amused by one funny occurrence: one day, he attended the class in one of the Italian educational institutions. The students were drawing the sitting model, being turned back to this person! It might be more convenient for them. Not trusting their own eyes, the students, when necessary, turned to their model and made the measurements using special metal sticks! Only after that, they drew the lines and hatched the shadows,completely ignoring the live contact with the model they have to draw.There is one more story told us by Alexander Leonidovich, very touching and a little bit romantic. Walking along the Montmartre, Alexander Leonidovich looked very intently at the painting and drawings of the artists who was working there. One of them, a woman asked him if he wished to have his portrait drawn. Having agreed, Alexander Leonidovich made his counter-proposition draw the picture of her. Having been curious about who was this gentleman she didn’t know, she had no choice as to agree to pose for him. Nevertheless, in the end, she couldn’t find the right words to express her gratitude and the admiration of his talent. That day when the delegation of the Russians professors was about to drive off, she came to their coach to say good words to her new acquaintance and to see the artist whose pictures she began to like.

Alexander Leonidovich had always considered that event as the evidence of respect for our artistic traditions and he remembered that day for the rest of his life.

As I said before, he was passionate about art, being ready to talk about the masterpieces of the world art for hours. I remember his excitement when he was talking about what he had seen in Egypt. He was amazed how the Ancient Egyptian sculptors could manage with material and shape the forms: they feel even tiny nuances. It was for the artist’s skills to express the subtlety of the forms, which you are unable to see: you can feel these nuances only by your palm, touching the smooth polished surface.

His ideas and thoughts about art, very often expressed during his classes, in working order, or during our friendly talks after classes, were sincere, clearly stated and with a great deal of philosophical insight.

I still remember his story about visiting the Sistine Chapel in Rome and the famous Michelangelo’s murals. At that time, I idolized this genius of the Renaissance. I have the same feelings now. Alexander Leonidovich tried to get his impressions across. «You can’t believe, — he said. — When I took a close look at the sitting human figures in the fresco, I came to the conclusion that any person, whichever physical capabilities they have would never be able to stay in such a position. But it makes the idea of this artwork more convincing! As it becomes apparent, art is a delusion, but so compelling, and people are ready to be deluded. It goes without saying, Alexander Leonidovich loved the life and appreciated every its moment.

I remember one day when Andrei Andreevich Mylnikov, set two male models with a motorbike to be painted. He arranged these tasks perfectly, as usual. This very motorbike evoked Alexander Leonidovich’s memories. He remembered the first years after the WWII. That time the old captured motorcycle was brought to the Academy as a prop for models. Although this bike was used as a prop, it was in a full working condition.

Sometimes the students of Academy arranged motorbike races along the Academy’s corridors. Starting near the Dean’s office of the faculty of painting, bikers did their first turn near the Anatomy auditorium. Then the biker took off the run and moved straight away to the doors of the Scientific Library, then pulled up.

 Not only did Alexander Leonidovich recollect those years because he was young, but he loved that time for the incredible sense of life. Many young people, war veterans came to the Academy. They have an ardent desire to make up for the lost time, to complete which hadn’t been completed because of the war and the short of time, to create that world, where they would live by right better.

Despite all the hardships which were typical for that time, our life at the Institute was fascinating and eventful. What’s more, students learned everything very enthusiastically; they organized many events in which a high number of people were engaged. The great majority of the Student Council members were former veterans of the WWII whose determination and exceptional organizational skills played an important part in the institutional life Alexander Leonidovich told us how students’ parties were organized in the studios. The table was set, and many young people were invited to those parties. Many young men and women came to the Academy: they were the students of the Leningrad State Conservatory, the State Leningrad University as well as from others city’s educational institutions. They have a nice time getting together: dancing, talking about art, playing the piano, in other words, life went on a full swing. I even saw a few photos taken at such events. Olia Oreshnikova, my former classmate and the granddaughter of Victor Mikhailovich Oreshnikiv, the famous Russian and Soviet artist, shew us these turning over the pages of an old family album. Cheerful and smiley faces looked at us from these photos. Andrei Andreevich, Alexander Leonidovich and Viktor Mikhailovich himself were also in these pictures. The last meeting with Alexander Leonidovich took place in 1987, after our final exams. Everything had been over: our exams, sleepless nights, the defence of my diploma work. I had to go to Moldavia, to the State Pedagogical Institute, where I was assigned and have to work. Having to make some arrangements before my departure, I came to the institute to sign my round list in the accounting department. I met Alexander Leonidovich in the corridor, near the office of the head of studies. We had a sweet talk, saying goodbye to each other. In the end, he wished me good luck and asked me to think of him if I would get together with my friends, the artists.

I have never seen him afterward; it was the last time we talked to each other. The news about his premature death came when I was in Kishinev: I knew about that from my friends who called me to tell me about that. Being unable to attend the funeral ceremony, I sent the telegram with my condolences. One of his colleagues, Professor Alexander Konstantinovich Sokolov, read it out loud.

Although some people are firmly convinced that there is no one person who can’t be replaced by another, I am not on the same page with them.It is an irrevocable loss for me. Every person is unique, continuing to live after their death because people have the memory of their deeds. Good deeds are always remembered. These memories live in our hearts and souls. Many of artworks, created by Alexander Leonidovich Korolev exist to this day.

One of which is the mosaic on the wall of the building of the Physical and Mathematical Faculty of the State St.Petersburg University, above the entrance, where by coincidence is studying Artem, my son. Another work of Alexander Leonidovich, the stained-glass window is above the moving staircase in the Gostiny Dvor metro station. The composition of this artwork is devoted to the first Russian Revolution of 1905, eclipsed by very expensive advertising billboards, however. It is our reality, the sign of the growing Russian capitalism. Who knows, the time will go by, and these advertising boards will be the thing of the past. I firmly believe in that.

I have one photo from my student years in my album. My friends, AlexanderLeonidovich, and I were photographed at the community work day, in other words, subbotnik. It was one of the first sunny days that spring. Lekha Ivanov, Valka Bobilkov, and I: we’re staying with Alexander Leonidovich. He is smiling with his broad smile: to students, his guys, the sun, good weather, he is in a positive mood. I still remember him as it is in this photo: a smiley, very kind and outgoing person.

Добро пожаловать в мою мастерскую!

 

 

 

Да, Вы не ошиблись, именно в мастерскую, потому что, именно мастерская является домом для художника и его картин. Пусть это будет пока виртуальная студия. Это даже лучше для первого знакомства. Во всяком случае, туда попасть легче и проще, чем в реальную мастерскую. Художник создает свои произведения не только для себя, но и для зрителей, и ему очень важна их оценка его труда. Показывая работы, он ищет, прежде всего, диалога с теми людьми, которые к нему пришли и с которыми он пытается найти контакт посредством образов своих картин.

Каждый человек в своей жизни ищет наиболее подходящие ему способы самовыражения. Я, сколько себя помню всю свою жизнь мечтал стать художником. Я не знаю почему, но, в начале, мне нравилось срисовывать красивые пейзажи, цветы, а также копии с картин знаменитых художников. Потом, я нашел отклик и поддержку у своего учителя, Юрия Романовича Хлебникова. Он преподавал в нашей школе уроки черчения и рисования, был очень увлеченным человеком и передал мне свою любовь к природе и к творчеству любимых им художников-импрессионистов.

Учеба в Свердловском художественном училище и Санкт-Петербургском Государственном институте живописи, скульптуры и архитектуры им.И.Е.Репина и встреча в стенах этого учебного заведения таких замечательных мастеров как А.А.Мыльникова, А.Л.Королева, Е.Е.Моисеенко, Б.С.Угарова,  Ю.М.Непринцева, дала мне очень много нового и полезного, и несмотря на то, что, большую часть времени приходилось писать и рисовать в стенах мастерской, я никогда не забывал об уроках моего детства и ранней юности. Для  меня живопись это не только интересное времяпровождение, но и способ изучения мира, как, например, это мы видим у художников-импрессионистов, которые художественно выражали то, что ученые открыли , изучая особенности света.

В молодости хочется все испытать и перепробовать. Я работал в различных живописных манерах, пытался через наиболее яркие изобразительные средства, отразить окружающий меня мир, выявить то богатство формы и цвета, которое , как будто спрятана в каждом объекте.  Я восхищался Матиссом и Модильяни, Пикассо и Сезанном, мне интересны были искания современных художников, их композиционные и цветовые находки. Но, я всегда считал, что новое и оригинальное в искусстве должно существовать не только для себя самого или для того, чтобы поразить окружающих. Оно должно исходить из самой сущности природы и умения художника наиболее ярко отразить окружающий мир. Возможно поэтому, всю жизнь я не перестаю учиться у импрессионистов.  Не думая о научных открытиях, они их сделали, работая на природе, отражая единственный и неповторимый момент жизни.  Об этом писал Луи Эмиль Эдмон Дюранти,  французский романист и литературно-художественный критик, современник  и друг художников-импрессионистов.

«Это было большой неожиданностью в тот период, когда, казалось, не оставалось ничего не открытого  наукой… увидеть , новые, вдруг возникающие идеи.      Новая ветвь развивалась из ствола старого  искусства…Колористическая схема, тип рисунка и серии оригинальных видов… В области цвета они сделали гениальное открытие, чей источник нельзя было найти еще где-либо. Это открытие в действительности, состоит в признании того, что сильный свет обесцвечивает тона, что солнечный свет отраженный объектами, имеет тенденцию, в силу его чистоты, приводить их обратно к световому единству, которое «сплавляет» свои семь спектральных лучей в единое бесцветное сияние, которое и есть свет. От интуиции к интуиции, они мало-помалу достигали цели в разделении солнечного цвета, на  лучи, их элементы, и, составляя  опять их единство, посредством общей гармонии цветов в спектре, которую они отражали  на своих полотнах. С точки зрения деликатности  взгляда, изысканности проникновения искусства цвета, это, крайне необычный результат. Наиболее  эрудированный физик не мог бы поспорить с их анализом цвета». (Цитирую по книге: J.RevaldThe history of Impressionism”.

     На мой взгляд, это чрезвычайно сложно начать и довести до исключительной степени законченности работу на пленере, при всей кажущейся легкости и даже небрежности исполнения этих картин, которую не могли оценить по достоинству большинство современников. Изучать природу через живопись, и учиться у этих великих мастеров, что может быть лучше и увлекательнее для человека,  посвятившего себя искусству живописи! Постоянно сталкиваешься с трудностями, вполне прозаического характера. Например, как  поймать в начале и сохранить состояние цвета и освещенности предметов в конце работы над пейзажем или портретом в пленере? И где он, этот конец работы. Ни для кого не является тайной, что, например, Валентин Серов, создавая свои бессмертные портреты, такие как портрет  Татьяны Любатович и «Девочка с персиками», не отпускал своих моделей, заставляя позировать их по много сеансов, чтобы передать всю прелесть ускользающего цвета.

     Второй фактор, который важен для меня при создании пейзажа, это то, что называется «гением места», то, что благотворно воздействует на человека, находящегося в конкретной ауре. Это настроение, безусловно, передается зрителю через удачно написанную работу. Пригороды Санкт-Петербурга вообще, и Пушкин и Павловск, куда я обычно выезжаю, в частности, проникнуты атмосферой удивительного единения природы, искусства, обаяния исторических событий и личностей. Парки Царского Села и Павловска представляют собой удивительную симфонию природы, архитектуры и ландшафтного дизайна. Казалось бы, все эти годы, обследовав, буквально каждый уголок, не перестаешь находить все новые и новые виды, которые открываются твоему глазу, и буквально, просятся на холст. И когда, ты это находишь, то, как будто навсегда забываешь, и о капризах погоды, и о том, какое расстояние пришлось пройти в поисках заветного места, и о том, что реально останется на твоем холсте. Более того, смотря на свою работу зимой, вспоминаешь те мгновения, из которых как будто были сотканы те удивительные дни. Все краски, звуки и запахи оживают, и становятся как вино из одуванчиков у Рэя Бредбери, тем волшебным напитком, который символизирует пробуждение, расцвет и пышное увядание природы, и ты снова ждешь встречи с прекрасным. И если найдется кто-нибудь, который хотя-бы в малейшей степени будет чувствовать то же самое, не это ли самая большая удача для художника!